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Studies into the effects of stereotype threat (ST) on test performance have shed new light on race and sex differences in achievement and intelligence test scores. In this article, the authors relate ST theory to the psychometric concept of measurement invariance and show that ST effects may be viewed as a source of measurement bias. As such, ST effects are(More)
In the present paper, a general class of heteroscedastic one-factor models is considered. In these models, the residual variances of the observed scores are explicitly modelled as parametric functions of the one-dimensional factor score. A marginal maximum likelihood procedure for parameter estimation is proposed under both the assumption of multivariate(More)
A new class of parametric IRT models for dichotomously scored items is presented. The new class of models is a subclass of both the class of models defined by the four-parameter logistic item response function and the nonparametric Double Monotonicity (DM) model. Three special cases of this new class of models are discussed. One of these special cases is(More)
The gains of scores on standardized intelligence tests (i.e., Flynn effect) have been the subject of extensive debate concerning their nature, causes, and implications. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether five intelligence tests are measurement invariant with respect to cohort. Measurement invariance implies that gains over the years can(More)
Longitudinal studies have shown that preschool children's diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are likely to persist into school age. However, limited attention has been paid to instability of diagnosis. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate both(More)
BACKGROUND Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when younger(More)
We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence (g) as a second order common factor. The results indicate(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of an observational tool--the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS)--in the diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorders (DBD) and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschoolers. We hypothesized that the DB-DOS may help support the presumption of a(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of a semi-structured diagnostic parent interview, i.e., the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule (K-DBDS), in preschool children. For Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), to define symptoms two coding methods were compared, i.e., one based on the threshold "often" and the other(More)
In this paper, the extended Rasch model for dichotomously scored items is derived from the general multivariate Bernoulli distribution. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the multivariate Bernoulli distribution to be equal to the extended Rasch model provide a new loglinear representation of the extended Rasch model. Conditions are also given under(More)