David J. Hartshorne

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It is clear from several studies that myosin phosphatase (MP) can be inhibited via a pathway that involves RhoA. However, the mechanism of inhibition is not established. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that Rho-kinase (Rho-associated kinase) via phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) inhibited MP activity(More)
ROCK (Rho-kinase), an effector molecule of RhoA, phosphorylates the myosin binding subunit (MBS) of myosin phosphatase and inhibits the phosphatase activity. This inhibition increases phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) of myosin II, which is suggested to induce RhoA-mediated assembly of stress fibers and focal adhesions. ROCK is also known to(More)
We examined the role of regulatory myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation of myosin II in cell migration of fibroblasts. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) inhibition blocked MLC phosphorylation at the cell periphery, but not in the center. MLCK-inhibited cells did not assemble zyxin-containing adhesions at the periphery, but maintained focal adhesions in(More)
Regulation of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase (SMPP-1M) is thought to be a primary mechanism for explaining Ca(2+) sensitization/desensitization in smooth muscle. Ca(2+) sensitization induced by activation of G protein-coupled receptors acting through RhoA involves phosphorylation of Thr-696 (of the human isoform) of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of(More)
This review has presented some of the recent data on myosin phosphatase from smooth muscle. Although it is not conclusive, it is likely that most of the myosin phosphatase activity is represented by a holoenzyme composed of three subunits. These are: a catalytic subunit of 38 kDa of the type 1 phosphatase, probably the delta isoform (i.e. PP1c delta); a(More)
Phosphorylation of myosin II plays an important role in many cell functions, including smooth muscle contraction. The level of myosin II phosphorylation is determined by activities of myosin light chain kinase and myosin phosphatase (MP). MP is composed of 3 subunits: a catalytic subunit of type 1 phosphatase, PP1c; a targeting subunit, termed myosin(More)
A mechanism proposed for regulation of myosin phosphatase (MP) activity is phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase target subunit (MYPT1). Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is associated with the contractile machinery and can phosphorylate myosin at the myosin light-chain kinase sites. The possibility that ILK may also phosphorylate and regulate MP was(More)
Ca(2+) sensitization of smooth muscle contraction involves inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (SMPP-1M) and enhanced myosin light chain phosphorylation. Inhibition of SMPP-1M is modulated through phosphorylation of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) by either Rho-associated kinase (ROK) or an unknown SMPP-1M-associated kinase. Activated ROK is(More)
Myosin phosphatase-targeting subunit 1 (MYPT1) binds to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1C). This binding is believed to target PP1C to specific substrates including myosin II, thus controlling cellular contractility. Surprisingly, we found that during mitosis, mammalian MYPT1 binds to polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1). MYPT1 is phosphorylated(More)
The 20,000-dalton light chain of turkey gizzard myosin is phosphorylated at two sites. Dual phosphorylation is observed when both intact myosin and isolated light chains are used as substrates. Phosphorylation of the second site is not observed at higher ionic strength (e.g. 0.35 M KCl). The first phosphorylation site (serine 19) is phosphorylated(More)