David J. Griffiths

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Retroviruses are an important group of pathogens that cause a variety of diseases in humans and animals. Four human retroviruses are currently known, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1, which causes AIDS, and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1, which causes cancer and inflammatory disease. For many years, there have been sporadic reports of(More)
In view of the concern over potential infection hazards in the use of porcine tissues and organs for xenotransplantation to humans, we investigated the diversity of porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) genomes in the DNA of domestic pigs and related species. In addition to the three known envelope subgroups of infectious gamma retroviruses (PERV-A, -B, and(More)
To investigate the hypothesis that the human endogenous sequence ERV-3 has a function, we have cloned and expressed the transmembrane region of its envelope gene and raised specific antibodies to the fusion protein and to a synthetic peptide. These antibodies reacted with a 65-kDa polypeptide which constituted approximately 0.1% of the cellular protein in(More)
Endogenous betaretroviruses (enJSRVs) of sheep are expressed abundantly in the female reproductive tract and play a crucial role in conceptus development and placental morphogenesis. Interestingly, the colonization of the sheep genome by enJSRVs is likely still ongoing. During early pregnancy, enJSRV expression correlates with the production of tau(More)
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) result from ancestral infection by infectious viruses over millions of years of primate evolution. Some are transcriptionally active, express proteins and therefore have the potential to cause disease. Here we review the controversial attempts to link them with cancer and autoimmunity. The main difficulty is that most(More)
The human endogenous retroviruses HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 are full-length proviruses but unusual in being found in only a proportion of the population. Here, we study the geographic distribution of these HERVs and their prevalence in autoimmune disease. The frequency of HERV-K113 and HERV-K115 in 174 individuals from Africa was 21.8 and 34.1%, respectively,(More)
The human endogenous retrovirus ERV3 possesses an open reading frame for a truncated envelope, which is expressed as mRNA and protein. Here we examine the env sequence in primates for evidence of evolutionary conservation. ERV3 sequences were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of great ape and Old World primates but not from New World primates or gorilla,(More)
Human retrovirus 5 (HRV-5) represented a fragment of a novel retrovirus sequence identified in human RNA and DNA preparations. In this study, the genome of HRV-5 was cloned and sequenced and integration sites were analyzed. Using PCR and Southern hybridization, we showed that HRV-5 is not integrated into human DNA. A survey of other species revealed that(More)
A 932-bp retrovirus sequence was cloned by reverse transcriptase PCR from salivary gland tissue of a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. The sequence is related to that of type B and type D retroviruses and was present in a sucrose density gradient fraction corresponding to that of an enveloped retrovirus particle. Sequences amplified from tissues of eight(More)