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Green plants use the xanthophyll cycle to regulate the flow of energy to chlorophylla within photosynthetic proteins. Under conditions of low light intensity violaxanthin, a carotenoid possessing nine conjugated double bonds, functions as an antenna pigment by transferring energy from its lowest excited singlet state to that of chlorophylla within(More)
The peripheral accessory chlorophylls (Chls) of the photosystem II (PSII) reaction center (RC) are coordinated by a pair of symmetry-related histidine residues (D1-H118 and D2-H117). These Chls participate in energy transfer from the proximal antennae complexes (CP43 and CP47) to the RC core chromophores. In addition, one or both of the peripheral Chls are(More)
The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of the synthetic carotenoid, locked-15,15′-cis-spheroidene, were studied by absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, fast transient absorption and electron spin resonance spectroscopies in solution and after incorporation into the reaction center of Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides R-26.1. HPLC purification(More)
All-optical signal processing enables modulation and transmission speeds not achievable using electronics alone. However, its practical applications are limited by the inherently weak nonlinear effects that govern photon-photon interactions in conventional materials, particularly at high switching rates. Here, we show that the recently discovered nonlocal(More)
The lifetimes of the first excited singlet states (2(1)A(g)) of diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin, carotenoids involved in the xanthophyll cycle in some genera of algae, have been measured by femtosecond time-resolved optical spectroscopy to be 22.8 +/- 0.1 ps and 13.3 +/- 0.1 ps, respectively. Using the energy gap law for radiationless transitions set forth(More)
The excited state dynamics in polycrystalline thin films of tetracene are studied using both picosecond fluorescence and femtosecond transient absorption. The solid-state results are compared with those obtained for monomeric tetracene in dilute solution. The room temperature solid-state fluorescence decays are consistent with earlier models that take into(More)
The excited state dynamics of polycrystalline tetracene films are studied using femtosecond transient absorption in combination with picosecond fluorescence, continuing work reported in an earlier paper [J. J. Burdett, A. M. Muller, D. Gosztola, and C. J. Bardeen, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144506 (2010)]. A study of the intensity dependence of the singlet state(More)
The determination of the structure of transient molecules, such as photoexcited states, in disordered media (such as in solution) usually requires methods with high temporal resolution. The transient molecular structure of a reaction intermediate produced by photoexcitation of NiTPP-L2 (NiTPP, nickeltetraphenylporphyrin; L, piperidine) in solution was(More)
Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectroscopy with ultrafast X-ray emission spectroscopy and diffuse(More)
An electron donor-acceptor-donor molecule consisting of two porphyrin donors rigidly attached to the two-electron acceptor N,N'-diphenyl-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide) acts as a light intensity-dependent molecular switch on a picosecond time scale. Excitation of the porphyrins within this molecule with subpicosecond laser pulses results in single or(More)