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PURPOSE Children with language impairment (LI) often perform below the level of typically developing peers on measures of both processing speed and working memory. This study examined the relationship between these 2 types of measures and attempted to determine whether such measures can account for the LI itself. METHOD Fourteen-year-old children with LI(More)
Learning the sounds of letters is an important part of learning to read and spell. To explore the factors that make some letter-sound correspondences easier for children to learn than others, we first analyzed knowledge of letters' sounds (and names) by 660 children between 3 1/2 and 7 1/2 years old. A second study examined pre-schoolers' (M age 4 years, 11(More)
To evaluate the effects of an intensive tertiary reading intervention, 27 students with severe reading difficulties and disabilities, 14 of whom had demonstrated an inadequate response to 1-2 tiers of prior reading instruction, received a 16-week intervention package involving decoding and fluency skills. The decoding intervention was provided for 2 hours(More)
OBJECTIVE The outcome in adolescence of children diagnosed as dyslexic during the early years of school was examined in children prospectively identified in childhood and continuously followed to young adulthood. This sample offers a unique opportunity to investigate a prospectively identified sample of adolescents for whom there is no question of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether children with shunted hydrocephalus show variations in regional brain tissue composition that relate to cognitive functions. DESIGN Nonequivalent control group. PATIENTS AND METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cognitive skills assessments were obtained on 28 children, 6 to 9 years of age, with shunted(More)
Phonological awareness, phonological memory, and phonological access to lexical storage play important roles in acquiring literacy. We examined the convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of these phonological processing abilities (PPA) in 389 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of each PPA as(More)
First and 2nd graders (N = 28?) receiving Title I services received 1 of 3 kinds of classroom reading programs: direct instruction in letter-sound correspondences practiced in decodable text (direct code); less direct instruction in systematic sound-spelling patterns embedded in connected text (embedded code); and implicit instruction in the alphabetic code(More)
BACKGROUND Cognitive correlates of long-term cannabis use have been elusive. We tested the hypothesis that long-term cannabis use is associated with deficits in short term memory, working memory, and attention in a literate, westernized culture (Costa Rica) in which the effects of cannabis use can be isolated. METHODS Two cohorts of long-term cannabis(More)
Simulated data were used to demonstrate that groups formed by imposing cut-points based on either discrepancy or low-achievement definitions of learning disabilities (LD) are unstable over time. Similar problems were demonstrated in longitudinal data from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study, where 39% of the children designated as having LD in Grade 3(More)
Although children with hydrocephalus frequently show poor development of nonverbal cognitive skills relative to verbal skills, little is known about the neuropathologic correlates of these discrepancies. In this study, cerebral white-matter structures and lateral ventricles were measured from the magnetic resonance images of age-matched children with(More)