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The origins of signaling by vertebrate steroids are not fully understood. An important advance was the report that an estrogen-binding steroid receptor [SR] is present in amphioxus, a basal chordate with a similar body plan as vertebrates. To investigate the evolution of estrogen-binding to steroid receptors, we constructed a 3D model of amphioxus SR(More)
BACKGROUND Lamprey, basal vertebrate, is an important model system for understanding early events in vertebrate evolution. Lamprey contains orthologs of the estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor and corticoid receptor. A perplexing property of lamprey is that 15alpha-hydroxy-steroids are active steroids. For example, 15alpha-hydroxy-estradiol(More)
BACKGROUND Oral glucocorticoids (steroids) are the mainstay of treatment for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but their use is often associated with short- and long-term side effects. Following a literature review and discussions with patients with SLE, clinicians, and payers, a need was identified for a comprehensive SLE-specific tool that can be used(More)
Sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate, contains a progesterone receptor [PR]. An unusual property of lamprey is that gonadotropin-releasing hormone induces synthesis of 15α-hydroxy-progesterone [15α-OH-P] instead of progesterone. There also is indirect evidence for 7α-OH-P in lamprey serum. To determine if there is a structural basis for the binding of 7α-OH-P(More)
Background: Lamprey, basal vertebrate, is an important model system for understanding early events in vertebrate evolution. Lamprey contains orthologs of the estrogen receptor [ER], progesterone receptor and corticoid receptor. A perplexing property of lamprey is that 15a-hydroxy-steroids are active steroids. For example, 15a-hydroxy-estradiol [15a-OH-E2](More)
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