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* In recent decades, an intriguing view of human cognition has garnered increasing support. According to this view, which I will call 'the hypothesis of extended cognition' ('HEC', hereafter), human cognitive processing literally extends into the environment surrounding the organism, and human cognitive states literally comprise—as wholes do their proper(More)
Conscious experience is at once the most familiar thing in the world and the most mysterious. There is nothing we know about more directly than consciousness, but it is extraordinarily hard to reconcile it with everything else we know. Why does it exist? What does it do? How could it possibly arise from neural processes in the brain? These questions are(More)
1 Two concepts of emergence The term 'emergence' often causes confusion in science and philosophy, as it is used to express at least two quite different concepts. We can label these concepts strong emergence and weak emergence. Both of these concepts are important, but it is vital to keep them separate. We can say that a high-level phenomenon is strongly(More)
Two-dimensional approaches to semantics, broadly understood, recognize two " dimensions " of the meaning or content of linguistic items. On these approaches, expressions and their utterances are associated with two different sorts of semantic values, which play different explanatory roles. Typically, one semantic value is associated with reference and(More)