Learn More
OBJECTIVE The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. METHOD(More)
BACKGROUND There has been an increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. To explore this further, we evaluated the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), as well as 3-nitrotyrosine levels and carbonyl content in patients in the early(More)
BACKGROUND There is growing interest in glutamatergic agents in depression, particularly ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We aimed to assess the efficacy of ketamine in major depressive episodes. METHOD We searched EMBASE, PsycINFO, CENTRAL, and Medline from 1962 to January 2014 to identify double-blind, randomized(More)
OBJECTIVE Although cognitive impairment is an important clinical feature of bipolar disorder, it is unknown whether deficits are present at illness onset. The purpose of this study was to determine whether neuropsychological impairments are present in clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder shortly after resolution of their first manic episode. (More)
OBJECTIVE To review the literature on the efficacy and safety of depot formulations of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medications (FGAs and SGAs) in patients with bipolar disorder. METHOD We conducted a computer-aided MEDLINE search using the search terms 'depot antipsychotic', 'bipolar disorder' and 'compliance.' RESULTS We identified eight(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress is thought to mediate neuropathological processes of a number of neuropsychiatric disorders and recent data suggest that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). In the present investigation, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies that evaluated markers of oxidative stress in individuals(More)
Bipolar I disorder (BD) has a poorer longer-term outcome than previously thought, with persistent cognitive impairment and functional decline. The neurobiological underpinnings that might underlie these changes remain unknown. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cytokines are potential candidates. The aim of this study was to(More)
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with updates in 2007 and 2009. This third update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders, reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications.The recommendations for(More)
OBJECTIVES Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common and highly disabling disease characterized by substantial cognitive and functional impairment. The exact neurobiological mechanisms underlying the expression of symptoms in this condition remain unknown but there is growing evidence that glutamate might play an important role. Using proton magnetic resonance(More)
BACKGROUND Although cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder have been associated with diminished functional outcome, this relationship has been studied primarily through cross-sectional designs, and has not been studied in patients early in the course of illness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of cognitive functioning on longitudinal(More)