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INTRODUCTION Little is known about mortality rates following general surgical procedures in the United Kingdom. Deaths are most common in the 'high-risk' surgical population consisting mainly of older patients, with coexisting medical disease, who undergo major surgery. Only limited data are presently available to describe this population. The aim of the(More)
INTRODUCTION Post-operative outcomes may be improved by the use of flow related end-points for intra-venous fluid and/or low dose inotropic therapy. The mechanisms underlying this benefit remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of stroke volume guided intra-venous fluid and low dose dopexamine on tissue microvascular flow and(More)
BACKGROUND Metallothionein 3 (MT3) inhibits growth in a variety of cell types. We measured MT3 gene expression by RT-PCR, and DNA methylation in the MT3 promoter by combined bisulphite restriction analysis, in four oesophageal cancer cell lines and the resected oesophagus from 64 patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). RESULTS MT3(More)
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a(More)
BACKGROUND Although it is accepted that metastatic colorectal cancers (mCRCs) that carry activating mutations in KRAS are unresponsive to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) monoclonal antibodies, a significant fraction of KRAS wild-type (wt) mCRCs are also unresponsive to anti-EGFR therapy. Genes encoding EGFR ligands amphiregulin (AREG) and(More)
BACKGROUND Minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) compared with open esophagectomy (OE) has been shown to have clinical advantages, but selection bias is present. METHODS All patients undergoing MIE or OE for cancer between 1999 and 2007 were eligible for analysis. To minimize selection bias, only patients who also met the selection criteria for the(More)
Patients diagnosed with esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (GEJAC) have poor survival. We investigated the possible influence of pre-morbid lifestyle factors on survival for these lethal cancers. This study included a population-based cohort of patients with EAC (n = 362) and GEJAC (n = 421) tumors. Detailed(More)
Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has become a major concern in Western countries due to rapid rises in incidence coupled with very poor survival rates. One of the key risk factors for the development of this cancer is the presence of Barrett's esophagus (BE), which is believed to form in response to repeated gastro-esophageal reflux. In this study we(More)
BACKGROUND Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis) is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett's oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine if histopathologic assessment of esophageal biopsies harvested for research study is justified due to the heterogeneity of tissues in the esophagus, and the consequent histopathologic mis-matches with the clinical histopathology of biopsies taken at the same level. METHODS Since 2004, patients undergoing upper endoscopy for a(More)