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The purpose of this paper is to present results from methodologies used in our laboratory that are targeted toward identifying specific brain injury thresholds. Results from studying one form of brain injury, diffuse axonal injury, are presented in this report. Physical models, or surrogates, of the skull-brain complex are used to estimate the relationship(More)
We used a new approach, termed dynamic cortical deformation (DCD), to study the neuronal, vascular, and glial responses that occur in focal cerebral contusions. DCD produces experimental contusion by rapidly deforming the cerebral cortex with a transient, nonablative vacuum pulse of short duration (25 milliseconds) to mimic the circumstances of traumatic(More)
Although it is known that the brain can be injured by mechanical forces initiated at the moment of impact during trauma, it is not clear how the physical response of the brain dictates the injury patterns that occur in experimental models of traumatic brain injury. In this study, we investigated the mechanical response of the brain to a technique that(More)
Damage to axons and glial cells in the central nervous system (CNS) white matter is a nearly universal feature of traumatic brain injury, yet it is not clear how the tissue mechanical deformations are transferred to the cellular components of the CNS. Defining how cellular deformations relate to the applied tissue deformation field can both highlight(More)
Although glia have been historically classified as the structurally supporting cells of the central nervous system, their role in tissue mechanics is still largely unstudied. The influence of myelin and glia on the mechanical properties of spinal cord tissue was examined by testing embryonic day 18 chick embryo spinal cords in uniaxial tension following(More)
The microkinematic response of axons to mechanical stretch was examined in the developing chick embryo spinal cord during a period of rapid growth and myelination. Spinal cords were isolated at different days of embryonic (E) development post-fertilization (E12, E14, E16, and E18) and stretched 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. During this period,(More)
Primary damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) is a nearly universal consequence of spinal cord injury that contributes significantly to the overall pathology, including the introduction of reactive species that induce cytotoxicity as well as secondary insults on the BSCB itself. We have characterized quantitatively the extent and severity of(More)
The dura mater is the outermost and most substantial meningial layer of central nervous system (CNS) tissue that acts as a protective membrane for the brain and spinal cord. In animal models of traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, mechanical insults are often delivered directly to the dura to injure the underlying tissue. As such, including a(More)
A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model (FEM) that simulates the Impactor weight-drop experimental model of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) was developed. The model consists of the rat spinal cord, with distinct element sets for the gray and white matter, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the dura mater, a rigid rat spinal column, and a rigid(More)
The lack of practicable nonlinear elastic contact models frequently compels the inappropriate use of Hertzian models in analyzing indentation data and likely contributes to inconsistencies associated with the results of biological atomic force microscopy measurements. We derived and validated with the aid of the finite element method force-indentation(More)