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We analyze the advent and development of eight scientific fields from their inception to maturity and map the evolution of their networks of collaboration over time, measured in terms of co-authorship of scientific papers. We show that as a field develops it undergoes a topological transition in its collaboration structure between a small disconnected graph(More)
We analyze the temporal evolution of emerging fields within several scientific disciplines in terms of numbers of authors and publications. From bibliographic searches we construct databases of authors, papers, and their dates of publication. We show that the temporal development of each field, while different in detail, is well described by population(More)
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We propose a practical scheme to use photons from causally disconnected cosmic sources to set the detectors in an experimental test of Bell's inequality. In current experiments, with settings determined by quantum random number generators, only a small amount of correlation between detector settings and local hidden variables, established less than a(More)
This paper analyzes the choice of academic scientists to commercially exploit their research. I build a model of the timing of entry into commercial activities by an academic research team, and analyze the returns and costs of these activities. In order to focus on the peculiarities of academic entrepreneurship as opposed to industrial entrepreneurship, I(More)
The influential Berkeley theoretical physicist Geoffrey Chew renounced the reigning approach to the study of subatomic particles in the early 1960s. The standard approach relied on a rigid division between elementary and composite particles. Partly on the basis of his new interpretation of Feynman diagrams, Chew called instead for a "nuclear democracy" that(More)
Multifield models of inflation with nonminimal couplings are in excellent agreement with the recent results from Planck. Across a broad range of couplings and initial conditions, such models evolve along an effectively single-field attractor solution and predict values of the primordial spectral index and its running, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and(More)
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