David I. Kaiser

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We analyze the advent and development of eight scientific fields from their inception to maturity and map the evolution of their networks of collaboration over time, measured in terms of co-authorship of scientific papers. We show that as a field develops it undergoes a topological transition in its collaboration structure between a small disconnected graph(More)
The population dynamics underlying the diffusion of ideas hold many qualitative similarities to those involved in the spread of infections. In spite of much suggestive evidence this analogy is hardly ever quantified in useful ways. The standard benefit of modeling epidemics is the ability to estimate quantitatively population average parameters, such as(More)
We analyze the temporal evolution of emerging fields within several scientific disciplines in terms of numbers of authors and publications. From bibliographic searches we construct databases of authors, papers, and their dates of publication. We show that the temporal development of each field, while different in detail, is well described by population(More)
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the platelet-activating factor (PAF) on the superoxide anion production (O2.) of human alveolar macrophages (AM) from nonsmoking (n = 18) and smoking (n = 30) subjects. Freshly isolated cells were stimulated with (PAF) or with a phorbol ester (phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA)). Stimulation with PAF(More)
Lung cancer in young adults has been differently described in publications from various regions of the world, in respect of relative incidence, distribution of morphology and stages, and prognosis of the disease. We analysed retrospectively the data from the cancer registry of the Lungenklinik Heckeshorn in Berlin between 1986 and 1995 with regard to this(More)
SFI Working Papers contain accounts of scienti5ic work of the author(s) and do not necessarily represent the views of the Santa Fe Institute. We accept papers intended for publication in peer-­‐reviewed journals or proceedings volumes, but not papers that have already appeared in print. Except for papers by our external faculty, papers must be based on work(More)
Soon after the tist models of inflation were published in 1981 and 1982 [l, 21, several papers were written to study how the universe would reheat following the supercooled in&tionary state [3]. The process appeared to be straightforward: in models such as new inflation (and chaotic inilation [4]), which incorporate a second order phase transition to end(More)
AIM To determine the value of high-resolution MRI in pleural and chest wall diseases, the normal and pathologic costal pleura and adjacent chest wall between paravertebral and the axillary region were examined with contrast enhanced high-resolution T1-weighted MRI images using a surface coil. MATERIAL AND METHODS Normal anatomy was evaluated in 5 healthy(More)