David I. K. Martin

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Epigenetic silencing can mimic genetic mutation by abolishing expression of a gene. We hypothesized that an epimutation could occur in any gene as a germline event that predisposes to disease and looked for examples in tumor suppressor genes in individuals with cancer. Here we report two individuals with soma-wide, allele-specific and mosaic(More)
A feature common to all DNA sequencing technologies is the presence of base-call errors in the sequenced reads. The implications of such errors are application specific, ranging from minor informatics nuisances to major problems affecting biological inferences. Recently developed "next-gen" sequencing technologies have greatly reduced the cost of(More)
Environmental effects on phenotype can be mediated by epigenetic modifications. The epigenetic state of the murine A vy allele is highly variable, and determines phenotypic effects that vary in a mosaic spectrum that can be shifted by in utero exposure to methyl donor supplementation. We have asked if methyl donor supplementation affects the germ-line(More)
Persons who have hypermethylation of one allele of MLH1 in somatic cells throughout the body (a germ-line epimutation) have a predisposition for the development of cancer in a pattern typical of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. By studying the families of two such persons, we found evidence that the epimutation was transmitted from a mother to her(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is caused by heterozygous germline sequence mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes, most frequently MLH1 or MSH2. A novel molecular mechanism for HNPCC has recently been suggested by the finding of individuals with soma-wide monoallelic hypermethylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. In this(More)
Cytosine methylation in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster has been elusive and controversial: Its location and function have not been established. We have used a novel and highly sensitive genomewide cytosine methylation assay to detect and map genome methylation in stage 5 Drosophila embryos. The methylation we observe with this method is highly(More)
In cell senescence, cultured cells cease proliferating and acquire aberrant gene expression patterns. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) modulate gene expression through translational repression or mRNA degradation and have been implicated in senescence. We used deep sequencing to carry out a comprehensive survey of miRNA expression and involvement in cell senescence.(More)
Malignant cells often exhibit perturbations in the pattern of cytosine methylation. Hypermethylation of CpG islands has been extensively documented, but genome-wide hypomethylation is also a common feature of malignant cells. The bulk of cytosine methylation in the mammalian genome occurs on repetitive elements. This study analysed the methylation status of(More)
Small RNAs complex with proteins to mediate a variety of functions in animals and plants. Some small RNAs, particularly miRNAs, circulate in mammalian blood and may carry out a signaling function by entering target cells and modulating gene expression. The subject of this study is a set of circulating 30–33 nt RNAs that are processed derivatives of the 5′(More)
Epigenetic silencing is a pervasive mode of gene regulation in multicellular eukaryotes: stable differentiation of somatic cell types requires the maintenance of subsets of genes in an active or silent state. The variety of molecules involved, and the requirement for active maintenance of epigenetic states, creates the potential for errors on a large scale.(More)