David Horton Smith

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Background: Decision support (i.e., alerts and reminders) at the time of medication prescribing has been shown to be an effective method for reducing potential medication errors for inpatients, but much less is known about the effects in the outpatient setting. Using qualitative methods to inform our work, medication safety decision support and provider(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF) are 2 of the most common cardiovascular conditions nationally and AF frequently complicates HF. We examined how AF has impacts on adverse outcomes in HF-PEF versus HF-REF within a large, contemporary cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS We identified all adults diagnosed with HF-PEF or HF-REF based on(More)
OBJECTIVE Weight loss in type 2 diabetes is undisputedly important, and data from community settings are limited. We evaluated weight change and resulting glycemic and blood pressure control in type 2 diabetic patients at an HMO. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using electronic medical records, this retrospective cohort study identified 2,574 patients aged(More)
BACKGROUND Although colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis is improved by early diagnosis, screening rates remain low. OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of an automated telephone intervention on completion of fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). RESEARCH DESIGN In this randomized controlled trial conducted at Kaiser Permanente Northwest, a not-for-profit(More)
BACKGROUND Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) offer unique advantages over standard randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) and observational methodologies, and may provide a cost-efficient alternative for answering questions about the best treatments for common conditions. OBJECTIVES To describe health plan leaders' views on CRTs, identify barriers to(More)
BACKGROUND Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infections treated in ambulatory care settings, however the epidemiology differs by age and sex. The incidence of UTI is far greater in females than males, and infection in pediatric patients is more often due to anatomical abnormalities. The purpose of this research was to describe age-(More)
BACKGROUND Pharmacy databases are commonly used to assess medication usage, and a number of measures have been developed to measure patients' adherence to medication. An extensive literature now supports these measures, although few studies have systematically compared the properties of different adherence measures. METHODS As part of an 18-month(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies of predictors of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have limitations: (1) some focused on patients with clinically recognized chronic kidney disease (CKD); (2) others identified population-based patients who developed ESRD, but lacked earlier baseline clinical measures to predict ESRD. Our study was designed to address these(More)
BACKGROUND Identifying heart failure patients most likely to suffer poor outcomes is an essential part of delivering interventions to those most likely to benefit. We sought a comprehensive account of heart failure events and their cumulative economic burden by examining patient characteristics that predict increased cost or poor outcomes. METHODS We(More)
To determine the incidence of Clostridium difficile infection during 2007, we examined infection in adult inpatient and outpatient members of a managed-care organization. Incidence was 14.9 C. difficile infections per 10,000 patient-years. Extrapolating this rate to US adults, we estimate that 284,875 C. difficile infections occurred during 2007.