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Streptomyces coelicolor is a representative of the group of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria responsible for producing most natural antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. Here we report the 8,667,507 base pair linear chromosome of this organism, containing the largest number of genes so far discovered in a bacterium. The 7,825 predicted genes(More)
Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are multifunctional enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of a huge variety of carbon chains differing in their length and patterns of functionality and cyclization. Many polyketides are valuable therapeutic agents. A Streptomyces host-vector system has been developed for efficient construction and expression of recombinant(More)
In two separate studies a BclI-generated DNA fragment coding for the enzyme tyrosinase, responsible for melanin synthesis, was cloned from Streptomyces antibioticus DNA into two SLP1.2-based plasmid vectors (pIJ37 and pIJ41) to generate the hybrid plasmids, designated pIJ700 and pIJ701, using S. lividans 66 as the host. The fragment (1.55 kb) was subcloned(More)
The biochemical and morphological differentiation of actinomycetes makes them academically and economically interesting. Their secondary metabolites provide the majority of medically and agriculturally important antibiotics (streptomycete genes may also be the primary source of clinically important antibiotic resistance); their complex morphological(More)
We describe a design for a reputation system that increases the reliability and thus efficiency of remailer services. Our reputation system uses a MIX-net in which MIXes give receipts for intermediate messages. Together with a set of witnesses, these receipts allow senders to verify the correctness of each MIX and prove misbehavior to the witnesses. We(More)
The actII region, flanked by biosynthetic genes in the 25 kb act cluster of S. coelicolor, consists of four open reading frames, including a transcriptional activator for the biosynthetic genes, and genes controlling antibiotic export. A TTA codon (extremely rare in Streptomyces) is present both in actII-ORF2 (encoding a putative transmembrane export(More)
The genetically well-known strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) produces the pH indicator (red/blue) antibiotic actinorhodin, but not all the "blue pigment" produced by this strain is actinorhodin. When the organism was subjected to various nutrient limitations (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, or trace elements), and also during growth cessation caused by a(More)
The application of molecular cloning to antibiotic-producing microorganisms should lead to enhanced antibiotic productivity and to the biosynthesis of novel antibiotics by in vitro interspecific recombination. To allow such approaches, the genes for antibiotic synthesis must be isolated, analysed and perhaps modified. Certain Streptomyces species produce(More)
The Streptomyces coelicolor fab (fatty acid biosynthesis) gene cluster (fabD-fabH-acpP-fabF) is cotranscribed to produce a leaderless mRNA transcript. One of these genes, fabH, encodes a ketoacyl synthase III that is essential to and is proposed to be responsible for initiation of fatty acid biosynthesis in S. coelicolor.