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PURPOSE To update the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guideline recommendations for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer to improve the accuracy of HER2 testing and its utility as a predictive marker in invasive breast cancer. METHODS ASCO/CAP convened an Update(More)
PURPOSE To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that(More)
NR2E3, a photoreceptor-specific orphan nuclear receptor, is believed to play a pivotal role in the differentiation of photoreceptors. Mutations in the human NR2E3 gene and its mouse ortholog are associated with enhanced S-cones and retinal degeneration. In order to gain insights into the NR2E3 function, we performed temporal and spatial expression analysis,(More)
Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) influences the differentiation and survival of retinal photoreceptors in vivo and in vitro, but it is not known whether it acts directly on photoreceptor FGF receptors or indirectly through activation of surrounding cells. To clarify the effects of FGF-2 on photoreceptor survival, we developed a purified photoreceptor(More)
NRL, a bZIP transcription factor of the Maf subfamily, interacts with the homeodomain protein CRX and synergistically regulates rhodopsin expression. Here we report that six isoforms of NRL (29-35 kDa) are generated by phosphorylation and expressed specifically in the mammalian retina. The anti-NRL antibody also cross-reacts with a cytosolic 45-kDa protein,(More)
PURPOSE Patients with breast cancer experience progression and respond to treatment in diverse ways, but prognostic and predictive tools for the oncologist are limited. We have used gene expression data to guide the production of hundreds of novel antibody reagents to discover novel diagnostic tools for stratifying carcinoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
During the last decade, numerous research reports have considerably improved our knowledge about the physiopathology of retinal degenerations. Three non-mutually exclusive general areas dealing with therapeutic approaches have been proposed; gene therapy, pharmacology and retinal transplantations. The first approach involving correction of the initial(More)
Previous studies using immunohistochemistry suggest that loss of the expression of the prostate-derived Ets transcription factor (PDEF) is a strong indicator for cancer cell malignancy. However, the underlying mechanism for this has not been well elucidated. We determined the role of PDEF in breast cancer cell growth and tumor formation using a series of(More)
PURPOSE To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of American Pathologists convened an international Expert Panel that(More)
The role of cellular interactions in the mechanism of secondary cone photoreceptor degeneration in inherited retinal degenerations in which the mutation specifically affects rod photoreceptors was studied. We developed an organ culture model of whole retinas from 5-week-old mice carrying the retinal degeneration mutation, which at this age contain few(More)