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Alcohol dependence is a major public health challenge in need of new treatments. As alcoholism evolves, stress systems in the brain play an increasing role in motivating continued alcohol use and relapse. We investigated the role of the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK1R), a mediator of behavioral stress responses, in alcohol dependence and treatment. In(More)
To assess the efficacy and safety of maintenance therapy with ribavirin alone in chronic hepatitis C, 108 patients were treated with the combination of interferon alfa and ribavirin for 24 weeks; those who failed to have a virologic response were offered enrollment in a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial of ribavirin (1,000-1,200 mg daily) versus(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Fibrosis is the hallmark of hepatic cirrhosis, worsening of which is probably the best surrogate marker for progression of chronic liver disease. We evaluated a large cohort of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) using liver histology to assess the rate and predictors of progression of fibrosis. METHODS The cohort consisted of 123(More)
The 190 kD human IQGAP1 protein, by virtue of its N-terminal calponin-homology domain, is found associated with the actin cytoskeleton, and is capable of cross-linking actin filaments. IQGAP1 complexes with several proteins, including the Rho family GTPases Cdc42 and Rac, as well as calmodulin. It was previously noted that one of the IQ motifs of IQGAP1(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis in the world. Successful vaccine development is crucial in controlling global HCV infection. We have previously described the generation of HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) in insect cells using a recombinant baculovirus containing the complementary DNA of the HCV structural(More)
Pharmacogenetics (PG) examines gene variations for drug disposition, response, or toxicity. At the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (NIH CC), a multidepartment Pharmacogenetics Testing Implementation Committee (PGTIC) was established to develop clinical decision support (CDS) algorithms for abacavir, carbamazepine, and allopurinol, medications(More)
Lamivudine therapy induces improvements in chronic hepatitis B in a high proportion of patients, but prolonged therapy is limited by the development of viral resistance. We analyzed clinical responses and virologic resistance in 27 patients treated continuously with lamivudine for 2 to 4 years. Serum transaminases, hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA by both(More)
BACKGROUND Troglitazone promotes adipocyte differentiation in vitro and increases insulin sensitivity in vivo. Therefore, troglitazone may have therapeutic benefit in lipoatrophic diabetes. OBJECTIVE To determine whether troglitazone ameliorates hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia or increases fat mass in lipoatrophic patients. DESIGN Open-labeled(More)
We recently described the efficient assembly of hepatitis C virus (HCV) structural proteins into HCV-like particles (HCV-LPs) in insect cells. These noninfectious HCV-LPs have similar morphologic and biophysical properties as putative virions isolated from HCV-infected humans and can induce a broadly directed immune response in animal models. The HCV(More)
The purpose of this case study is to document hepatic adverse effects associated with long-term risperidone use in pediatric populations. Charts of all patients admitted to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) from December 1993 to April 1996 who had been treated with risperidone were screened for hepatotoxicity and weight gain. From the medical(More)