David Haughton

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In recent times, the application of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has diversified with the emergence of fields such as DNA computing and DNA data embedding. DNA data embedding, also known as DNA watermarking or DNA steganography, aims to develop robust algorithms for encoding non-genetic information in DNA. Inherently DNA is a digital medium whereby the(More)
We show that Slepian's Variant I permutation codes implement firstorder perfect steganography (i.e., histogram-preserving steganography). We give theoretical expressions for the embedding distortion, embedding rate and embedding efficiency of permutation codes in steganography, which demonstrate that these codes conform to prior analyses of the properties(More)
DNA data embedding is a newly emerging field aspiring to encode data in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA is an inherently digital and noisy medium, undergoing substitution, insertion and deletion mutations. Hence, encoding information in DNA can be seen as a particular case of digital communications in which biological constraints must be observed. In this(More)
Slepian's variant I permutation coding has been recently shown to be a fundamental steganographic tool, as it implements optimum perfect steganography of memoryless sources. Although real host signals are not memoryless, a decorrelating energy-preserving transform can always be applied before a method that assumes a memoryless source, as is usually done in(More)
—A solution to the problem of asymptotically optimum perfect universal steganography of finite memoryless sources with a passive warden is provided, which is then extended to contemplate a distortion constraint. The solution rests on the fact that Slepian's Variant I permutation coding implements first-order perfect universal steganography of finite host(More)
The emergent field of DNA data embedding has, in the past decade, seen the proposal of many methods to encode data in the genome of living organisms. These algorithms have primarily focused on incorporating error correction into encoded data. However the security aspects of data encoded in DNA have generally been overlooked. As with any data hiding method,(More)
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