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There is considerable recent evidence that parameters thought to reflect the complex interaction between the autonomic nervous system and the cardiovascular system during exercise testing can provide significant prognostic information. Specific variables of great importance include heart rate (HR) response to exercise (reserve), HR recovery after exercise,(More)
BACKGROUND The initial response of heart rate to dynamic exercise has been proposed as having prognostic value in limited studies that have used modalities other than the treadmill. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of early heart rate parameters in patients referred for routine clinical treadmill testing. METHODS AND RESULTS The heart rate(More)
The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study prospectively follows 8,677 children enrolled from birth who carry HLA-susceptibility genotypes for development of islet autoantibodies (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). During the median follow-up time of 57 months, 350 children developed at least one persistent IA (GAD antibody, IA-2A, or(More)
OBJECTIVES There are significant geographical differences in the prevalence and incidence of celiac disease that cannot be explained by HLA alone. More than 40 loci outside of the HLA region have been associated with celiac disease. We investigated the roles of these non-HLA genes in the development of tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) and(More)
In order to have a better understanding of unexplained heritability for complex diseases in conventional Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS), aggregated association analyses based on predefined functional regions, such as genes and pathways, become popular recently as they enable evaluating joint effect of multiple Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs),(More)
The characteristics of low minor allele frequency (MAF) and weak individual effects make genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for rare variant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) more difficult when using conventional statistical methods. By aggregating the rare variant effects belonging to the same gene, collapsing is the most common way to enhance(More)
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