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Thirty-one of 75 patients with recurrent upper respiratory infections were found to have immunoglobulin G subclass deficiencies with normal levels of total immunoglobulin G in a clinical allergy and asthma practice. Sixteen were IgG3 deficient, thirteen IgG2 deficient, and two were IgG1 deficient. Only one patient had an IgA deficiency. Two patients have(More)
The synthesis and structure-activity relationship of a series of arylaminoethyl amide cathepsin S inhibitors are reported. Optimization of P3 and P2 groups to improve overall physicochemical properties resulted in significant improvements in oral bioavailability over early lead compounds. An X-ray structure of compound 37 bound to the active site of(More)
The antigenic constituents of sporulated Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst antigens were characterized with antisera from mice immunized against C. parvum. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by silver staining defined the major proteins. Six of seven lectins used recognized as many as 15 bands. The lectins concanavalin A,(More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists(More)
We report a novel series of noncovalent inhibitors of cathepsin S. The synthesis of the peptidomimetic scaffold is described and structure-activity relationships of P3, P1, and P1' subunits are discussed. Lead optimization to a non-peptidic scaffold has resulted in a new class of potent, highly selective, and orally bioavailable cathepsin S inhibitors.
A series of N(alpha)-2-benzoxazolyl-alpha-amino acid-(arylaminoethyl)amides were identified as potent, selective, and noncovalent inhibitors of cathepsin S. Structure-activity relationships including strategies for modulating the selectivities among cathepsins S, K, and L, and in vivo pharmacokinetics are discussed. A X-ray structure of compound 3 bound to(More)
Optogenetic tools have become indispensable in neuroscience to stimulate or inhibit excitable cells by light. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) variants have been established by mutating the opsin backbone or by mining related algal genomes. As an alternative strategy, we surveyed synthetic retinal analogues combined with microbial rhodopsins for functional and(More)