Optogenetic tools have become indispensable in neuroscience to stimulate or inhibit excitable cells by light. Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) variants have been established by mutating the opsin backbone or by mining related algal genomes. As an alternative strategy, we surveyed synthetic retinal analogues combined with microbial rhodopsins for functional and… (More)
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are essential for cellular communication in higher organisms. Even though a vast pharmacological toolset to study cholinergic systems has been developed, control of endogenous neuronal nAChRs with high spatiotemporal precision has been lacking. To address this issue, we have generated photoswitchable nAChR agonists… (More)
In the crystal, mol-ecules of the centrosymmetric title compound, C12H4Br2F4N2, are linked into strands along  by weak C-H⋯F contacts. Furthermore, the mol-ecules are π-π stacked with perpendicular ring distances of 3.4530 (9) Å.