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The role of cytochrome b(559) in photosynthetic oxygen evolution has been investigated in three chloroplast mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in which one of the two histidine axial ligands to the heme, provided by the alpha subunit, has been replaced by the residues methionine, tyrosine, and glutamine. Photosystem two complexes functional for oxygen(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) contains two accessory chlorophylls (Chl(Z), ligated to D1-His118, and Chl(D), ligated to D2-His117), carotenoid (Car), and heme (cytochrome b(559)) cofactors that function as alternate electron donors under conditions in which the primary electron-donation pathway from the O(2)-evolving complex to P680(+) is inhibited. The(More)
Chlorophyll Z (ChlZ) is a redox-active chlorophyll (Chl) which is photooxidized by low-temperature (<100 K) illumination of photosystem II (PSII) to form a cation radical, ChlZ+. This cofactor has been proposed to be an "accessory" Chl in the PSII reaction center and is expected to be buried in the transmembrane region of the PSII complex, but the location(More)
Ten patients with bilateral nanophthalmos underwent sclerectomies for uveal effusion. Ultrastructural examination of the sclera revealed abnormal collagen in seven patients. Four showed dramatic fraying of the collagen fibrils into fine filaments 2 to 3 nm in diameter. In three of these cases and three other cases without fraying, there were foci of 10- to(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) contains a collection of pheophytins (Pheo) and chlorophylls (Chl) that have unique absorbance spectra depending on their electronic structure and the surrounding protein environment. Despite numerous efforts to identify the spectra of each cofactor, differing assignments of the chromophore absorbance bands and electrochromic effects(More)
Fluorescent fatty acid labels have been incorporated into the palmitoylation sites of rhodopsin and used to probe the membrane accessibility and location of these sites. The fluorescence properties of anthroyloxy and pyrenyl fatty acids bound to rhodopsin were investigated in a reconstituted vesicle system. Collisional quenching of fluorescence by stearic(More)
High-throughput screening technologies have revolutionized the manner in which potential therapeutics are identified. Although they are the source of lead compounds for ~65% of anticancer and antimicrobial drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration between 1981 and 2002, natural products have largely been excluded from modern screening programs.(More)