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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic chemicals released into the environment by fossil fuel combustion. Moreover, a primary route of human exposure to PAHs is tobacco smoke. Oocyte destruction and ovarian failure occur in PAH-treated mice, and cigarette smoking causes early menopause in women. In many cells, PAHs activate the aromatic(More)
Type 1 regulatory T cells (Tr1 cells ) that produce interleukin 10 (IL-10) are instrumental in the prevention of tissue inflammation, autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease. The transcription factor c-Maf is essential for the induction of IL-10 by Tr1 cells, but the molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of these cells remain unclear. Here we(More)
The AHR is well known for regulating responses to an array of environmental chemicals. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that the AHR also plays perhaps an even more important role in modulating critical aspects of cell function including cell growth, death, and migration. As these and other important AHR activities continue to be(More)
Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin causes altered gene expression and toxicity. The AHR repressor (AHRR) inhibits AHR signaling through a proposed mechanism involving competition with AHR for dimerization with AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) and binding to AHR-responsive enhancer elements (AHREs). We(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), so-designated based on the ability of the protein to bind with and be activated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related halogenated hydrocarbons, is part of an emerging family of ligand-activated transcriptional regulators that are distinct from the steroid-thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Once bound(More)
Receptor crosslinking of T-cell hybridomas induces cell activation followed by apoptosis. This activation-induced cell death requires de novo synthesis of RNA and proteins, but the actual gene products that provide the death signal have not been identified. We show here that receptor crosslinking induces Fas ligand and upregulates Fas, and that the ensuing(More)
The mechanisms leading to autoimmune diseases remain largely unknown despite numerous lines of experimental inquiry and epidemiological evidence. The growing number of genome-wide association studies and the largely incomplete concordance for autoimmune diseases in monozygotic twins support the role of the environment (including infectious agents and(More)
During progression of an in situ to an invasive cancer, epithelial cells lose expression of proteins that promote cell-cell contact, and acquire mesenchymal markers, which promote cell migration and invasion. These events bear extensive similarities to the process of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which has been recognized for several decades(More)
Only about 5% of human breast cancers can be attributed to inheritance of breast cancer susceptibility genes, while the balance are considered to be sporadic in origin. Breast cancer incidence varies with diet and other environmental influences, including carcinogen exposure. However, the effects of environmental carcinogens on cell growth control pathways(More)
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a receptor/transcription factor which regulates cytochrome P450 (CYP) gene transcription and which is activated by environmental carcinogens, some of which are associated with increased breast cancer risk. Here, we show that the AhR is over-expressed and constitutively active in human and rodent mammary tumors,(More)