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Raman spectroscopy and imaging are known to be valuable tools for the analysis of bone, the determination of protein secondary structure, and the study of the composition of crystalline materials. We have utilized all of these attributes to examine how mechanical loading and the resulting deformation affects bone ultrastructure, addressing the hypothesis(More)
The mechanical properties of bone are dictated by its amount, distribution and 'quality'. The composition of the mineral and matrix phases is integral to defining 'bone quality'. Exercise can potentially increase resistance to fracture, yet the effects of exercise on skeletal fragility, and how alterations in fragility are modulated by the amount,(More)
Inorganic-organic hybrid materials designed to facilitate bone tissue regeneration use a calcium phosphate mineral layer to encourage cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Mineral formed on porous materials is often discontinuous through the thickness of the scaffold. This study aimed to uniformly coat the pores of three-dimensional(More)
More than 85% of the global population requires repair or replacement of a craniofacial structure. These defects range from simple tooth decay to radical oncologic craniofacial resection. Regeneration of oral and craniofacial tissues presents a formidable challenge that requires synthesis of basic science, clinical science and engineering technology.(More)
Tissue mechanical properties reflect extracellular matrix composition and organization, and as such, their changes can be a signature of disease. Examples of such diseases include intervertebral disk degeneration, cancer, atherosclerosis, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and tooth decay. Here we introduce the tissue diagnostic instrument (TDI), a device(More)
Here we describe modifications that allow the bone diagnostic instrument (BDI) [P. Hansma et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 064303 (2008); Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 075105 (2006)], developed to test human bone, to test the femora of mice. These modifications include reducing the effective weight of the instrument on the bone, designing and fabricating new probe(More)
Inbred strain-specific differences in mice exist in bone cross-sectional geometry, mechanical properties, and indices of bone formation. Inbred strain-specific responses to external stimuli also exist, but the role of background strain in response to genetic deletion is not fully understood. Biglycan (bgn) deficiency impacts bone through negative regulation(More)
Patients with organ failure often suffer from increased morbidity and decreased quality of life. Current strategies of treating organ failure have limitations, including shortage of donor organs, low efficiency of grafts, and immunological problems. Tissue engineering emerged about two decades ago as a strategy to restore organ function with a living,(More)
Bone homeostasis is affected by several factors, particularly mechanical loading and growth factor signaling pathways. There is overwhelming evidence to validate the importance of these signaling pathways, however, whether these signals work synergistically or independently to contribute to proper bone maintenance is poorly understood. Weight-bearing(More)
While obtaining high-resolution structural details from bone is highly important to better understand its mechanical strength and the effects of aging and disease on bone ultrastructure, it has been a major challenge to do so with existing biophysical techniques. Though solid-state NMR spectroscopy has the potential to reveal the structural details of bone,(More)