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This paper presents a synthetic framework identifying the central drivers of start-up commercialization strategy and the implications of these drivers for industrial dynamics. We link strategy to the commercialization environment – the microeconomic and strategic conditions facing a firm that is translating an " idea " into a value proposition for(More)
This paper examines the determinants of commercialization strategy for start-up innovators. We examine whether the returns on innovation are earned through product market competition as opposed to cooperation with more established firms (either through licensing, strategic alliances or outright acquisition). Our key hypotheses are that the relative returns(More)
The results of this study provide insight into why some universities generate more new companies to exploit their intellectual property than do others. We compare four different explanations for cross-institutional variation in new firm formation rates from university technology licensing offices (TLOs) over the 1994–1998 period—the availability of venture(More)
This study empirically evaluates the certification and value-added roles of reputable venture capitalists (VCs). Using a novel sample of entrepreneurial start-ups with multiple financing offers, I analyze financing offers made by competing VCs at the first professional round of start-up funding, holding characteristics of the start-up fixed. Offers made by(More)
T paper examines the possible impact of venture capital (VC) backing on the commercialization direction of technology-based start-ups by asking: To what extent (if at all) do VC-funded start-ups engage in cooperative commercialization strategies (strategic alliances or technology licensing, or both) relative to a comparable set of start-ups, and with what(More)
This paper considers the impact of the intellectual property (IP) system on the timing of cooperation/licensing by start-up technology entrepreneurs. If the market for technology licenses is efficient, the timing of licensing is independent of the patent grant date, and productive efficiency considerations will result in licensing as early as possible after(More)
I investigate how different sources of information inuence the diffusion of pharmaceutical innovations. In prescription-drug markets, both advertising and scientiŽc information stemming from clinical trials can affect physicians’ prescription choices. Using novel indices of clinical-research output, I Žnd that both marketing and scientiŽc evidence directly(More)
This paper examines the determinants and consequences of investor activism in venture capital. Using a hand-collected sample of European venture capital deals, it shows the importance of human capital. Venture capital firms with partners that have prior business experience are more active recruiting managers and directors, helping with fundraising, and(More)
This paper analyzes major patterns and trends in entrepreneurship among technology-based university alumni since the 1930s by asking two related research questions: (1) Who enters entrepreneurship, and has this changed over time? (2) How does the rate of entrepreneurship vary with changes in the entrepreneurial business environment? We describe findings(More)