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DNA breaks are extremely harmful lesions that need to be repaired efficiently throughout the genome. However, the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes is a significant barrier to DNA repair, and the mechanisms of repair in the context of chromatin are poorly understood. Here we show that lysine 56 (K56) acetylation is an abundant modification of newly(More)
Increased transcriptional activity of beta-catenin resulting from Wnt/Wingless-dependent or -independent signaling has been detected in many types of human cancer, but the underlying mechanism of Wnt-independent regulation is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that AKT, which is activated downstream from epidermal growth factor receptor signaling,(More)
The tumor suppressor ARF induces a p53-dependent and -independent cell cycle arrest. Unlike the nucleoplasmic MDM2 and p53, ARF localizes in the nucleolus. The role of ARF in the nucleolus, the molecular target, and the mechanism of its p53-independent function remains unclear. Here we show that ARF interacts with B23, a multifunctional nucleolar protein(More)
Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is essential for the Warburg effect. In addition to its well-established role in aerobic glycolysis, PKM2 directly regulates gene transcription. However, the mechanism underlying this nonmetabolic function of PKM2 remains elusive. We show here that PKM2 directly binds to histone H3 and phosphorylates histone H3 at(More)
Choline acetyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.6) is the biosynthetic enzyme for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. To isolate choline acetyltransferase cDNA clones, a cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA of Drosophila melanogaster heads, these being one of the richest known sources of the enzyme. By screening the cDNA library with a mixture of three(More)
We report a paracrine effect whereby endothelial cells (ECs) promote the cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We showed that, without direct cell-cell contact, ECs secrete factors that promoted the CSC phenotype in CRC cells via Notch activation. In human CRC specimens, CD133 and Notch intracellular domain-positive CRC(More)
A balance in the activities of the Ipl Aurora kinase and the Glc7 phosphatase is essential for normal chromosome segregation in yeast. We report here that this balance is modulated by the Set1 methyltransferase. Deletion of SET1 suppresses chromosome loss in ipl1-2 cells. Conversely, combination of SET1 and GLC7 mutations is lethal. Strikingly, these(More)
The atrial gland of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica contains several biologically active peptides that are thought to be important in reproductive function. In the present study, three novel peptides, which we named califin A, B, and C, were purified from extracts of atrial glands by high performance liquid chromatography, and their primary(More)
Heat shock protein 90 beta (Hsp90 beta) is involved in many cellular functions. However, the posttranslational modification of Hsp90 beta, especially in response to apoptotic stimulation, is not well understood. In this study, we found that Hsp90 beta was cleaved by activated caspase-10 under UVB irradiation. Caspase-10 activation, in turn, depended on(More)
lncRNAs are known to regulate a number of different developmental and tumorigenic processes. Here, we report a role for lncRNA BCAR4 in breast cancer metastasis that is mediated by chemokine-induced binding of BCAR4 to two transcription factors with extended regulatory consequences. BCAR4 binding of SNIP1 and PNUTS in response to CCL21 releases the SNIP1's(More)