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Most empirical work on color constancy is based on simple laboratory models of natural viewing conditions. These typically consist of spots seen against uniform backgrounds or computer simulations of flat surfaces seen under spatially uniform illumination. In this study measurements were made under more natural viewing conditions. Observers used a(More)
The problem of color constancy may be solved if we can recover the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from photosensor responses. We consider this problem within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. First, we model the relation among illuminants, surfaces, and photosensor responses. Second, we construct prior distributions that describe(More)
Color constancy is our ability to perceive constant surface colors despite changes in illumination. Although color constancy has been studied extensively, its mechanisms are still largely unknown. Three classic hypotheses are that constancy is mediated by local adaptation, by adaptation to the spatial mean of the image, or by adaptation to the most intense(More)
Most empirical work on color constancy is based on simple laboratory models of natural viewing conditions. These typically consist of spots seen against uniform backgrounds or computer simulations of flat surfaces seen under spatially uniform illumination. We report measurements made under more natural viewing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a(More)
In non-mammalian vertebrates, retinal bipolar cells show center-surround receptive field organization. In mammals, recordings from bipolar cells are rare and have not revealed a clear surround. Here we report center-surround receptive fields of identified cone bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina. In the peripheral retina, cone bipolar cell nuclei(More)
We report the results of matching experiments designed to study the color appearance of objects rendered under different simulated illuminants on a CRT monitor. Subjects set asymmetric color matches between a standard object and a test object that were rendered under illuminants with different spectral power distributions. For any illuminant change, we(More)
Direct imaging of the retina by adaptive optics allows assessment of the relative number of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones in living human eyes. We examine the functional consequences of variation in the relative numbers of L and M cones (L/M cone ratio) for two observers whose ratios were measured by direct imaging.(More)
We examined the limitations imposed by neural factors on spatial contrast sensitivity for both isochromatic and isoluminant gratings. We used two strategies to isolate these neural factors. First, we eliminated the effect of blurring by the dioptrics of the eye by using interference fringes. Second, we corrected our data for additional sensitivity losses up(More)
Achromatic adjustment has been used widely to study color context effects. In the achromatic adjustment procedure, an observer adjusts a test stimulus until it appears black, gray, or white. By its nature, achromatic adjustment directly measures the effect of context only for stimuli that appear gray. We present achromatic loci measured in two contexts and(More)