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Observers use a wide range of color names, including white, to describe monochromatic flashes with a retinal size comparable to that of a single cone. We model such data as a consequence of information loss arising from trichromatic sampling. The model starts with the simulated responses of the individual L, M, and S cones actually present in the cone(More)
Pixel saturation, in which the incident light at a pixel causes one of the color channels of the camera sensor to respond at its maximum value, can produce undesirable artifacts in digital color images. We present a Bayesian algorithm that estimates what the saturated channel's value would have been in the absence of saturation. The algorithm uses the(More)
This paper describes the design and performance of an image capture simulator. The general model underlying the simulator assumes that the image capture device contains multiple classes of sensors with different spectral sensitivities and that each sensor responds in a known way to irradiance over most of its operating range. The input to the simulator is a(More)
The chromaticities of natural daylights cluster around the blackbody locus. We investigated whether the mechanisms that mediate human color constancy embody this statistical regularity of the natural environment, so that constancy is best when the illuminant change is one likely to occur. Observers viewed scenes displayed on a CRT-based stereoscope and(More)
In guinea pig retina, immunostaining reveals a dual gradient of opsins: cones expressing opsin sensitive to medium wavelengths (M) predominate in the upper retina, whereas cones expressing opsin sensitive to shorter wavelengths (S) predominate in the lower retina. Whether these gradients correspond to functional gradients in postreceptoral neurons is(More)
Color vision supports two distinct visual functions: discrimination and constancy. Discrimination requires that the visual response to distinct objects within a scene be different. Constancy requires that the visual response to any object be the same across scenes. Across changes in scene, adaptation can improve discrimination by optimizing the use of the(More)
Distinct physical processes can change the spectrum of the illumination that impinges on a surface. Here we consider two such changes. The first is a change in the spectrum of the light source that provides the scene illumination (light source change). The second is a change in the reflectance of a surface located near a test surface of interest (reflected(More)
Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is(More)
Across many scenes, local contrast provides a valid cue to surface reflectance, but it is not the only such cue. To generalize beyond theories of lightness that rely exclusively on local contrast, we need to know which other potential cues matter. We had observers make lightness matches between two scene locations, and varied the surface slant and local(More)