David H. Brainard

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The Psychophysics Toolbox is a software package that supports visual psychophysics. Its routines provide an interface between a high-level interpreted language (MATLAB on the Macintosh) and the video display hardware. A set of example programs is included with the Toolbox distribution.
  • D H Brainard
  • Journal of the Optical Society of America. A…
  • 1998
Most empirical work on color constancy is based on simple laboratory models of natural viewing conditions. These typically consist of spots seen against uniform backgrounds or computer simulations of flat surfaces seen under spatially uniform illumination. In this study measurements were made under more natural viewing conditions. Observers used a(More)
The problem of color constancy may be solved if we can recover the physical properties of illuminants and surfaces from photosensor responses. We consider this problem within the framework of Bayesian decision theory. First, we model the relation among illuminants, surfaces, and photosensor responses. Second, we construct prior distributions that describe(More)
Direct imaging of the retina by adaptive optics allows assessment of the relative number of long-wavelength-sensitive (L) and middle-wavelength-sensitive (M) cones in living human eyes. We examine the functional consequences of variation in the relative numbers of L and M cones (L/M cone ratio) for two observers whose ratios were measured by direct imaging.(More)
If color appearance is to be a useful feature in identifying an object, then color appearance must remain roughly constant when the object is viewed in different contexts. People maintain approximate color constancy despite variation in the color of nearby objects and despite variation in the spectral power distribution of the ambient light. Land's retinex(More)
In non-mammalian vertebrates, retinal bipolar cells show center-surround receptive field organization. In mammals, recordings from bipolar cells are rare and have not revealed a clear surround. Here we report center-surround receptive fields of identified cone bipolar cells in the macaque monkey retina. In the peripheral retina, cone bipolar cell nuclei(More)
Color constancy is our ability to perceive constant surface colors despite changes in illumination. Although color constancy has been studied extensively, its mechanisms are still largely unknown. Three classic hypotheses are that constancy is mediated by local adaptation, by adaptation to the spatial mean of the image, or by adaptation to the most intense(More)
In 1918, Gordon Holmes combined observations of visual-field scotomas across brain-lesioned soldiers to produce a schematic map of the projection of the visual field upon the striate cortex. One limit to the precision of his result, and the mapping of anatomy to retinotopy generally, is the substantial individual variation in the size, volumetric position,(More)
In guinea pig retina, immunostaining reveals a dual gradient of opsins: cones expressing opsin sensitive to medium wavelengths (M) predominate in the upper retina, whereas cones expressing opsin sensitive to shorter wavelengths (S) predominate in the lower retina. Whether these gradients correspond to functional gradients in postreceptoral neurons is(More)
Most empirical work on color constancy is based on simple laboratory models of natural viewing conditions. These typically consist of spots seen against uniform backgrounds or computer simulations of flat surfaces seen under spatially uniform illumination. We report measurements made under more natural viewing conditions. The experiments were conducted in a(More)