Learn More
In a diverse group of organisms that includes Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, planaria, hydra, trypanosomes, fungi and plants, the introduction of double-stranded RNAs inhibits gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. These responses, called RNA interference or post-transcriptional gene silencing, may provide anti-viral defence, modulate(More)
The division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates promotes orderly progression through the cell cycle. The complexes formed by CDK4 and the D-type cyclins(More)
In Xenopus, a cytoplasmic agent known as MPF induces entry into mitosis. In fission yeast, genetic studies have shown that the cdc2 kinase regulates mitotic initiation. The 13 kd product of the suc1 gene interacts with the cdc2 kinase in yeast cells. We show that the yeast suc1 gene product (p13) is a potent inhibitor of MPF in cell-free extracts from(More)
Human cyclin D1 has been associated with a wide variety of proliferative diseases but its biochemical role is unknown. In diploid fibroblasts we find that cyclin D1 is complexed with many other cellular proteins. Among them are protein kinase catalytic subunits CDK2, CDK4 (previously called PSK-J3), and CDK5 (also called PSSALRE). In addition, polypeptides(More)
Skeletal muscle differentiation entails the coordination of muscle-specific gene expression and terminal withdrawal from the cell cycle. This cell cycle arrest in the G0 phase requires the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). The function of Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which are controlled by Cdk inhibitors.(More)
Deregulation of cell proliferation is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation. Alteration in growth control pathways must translate into changes in the cell-cycle regulatory machinery, but the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking(More)
The p53 tumour-suppressor protein controls the expression of a gene encoding the p21 cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) regulator. Levels of p21 protein are increased in senescent cells and p21 overexpression blocks the growth of tumour cells. In normal human cells, but not in many tumour cells, p21 exists in a quaternary complex with a cyclin, a CDK,(More)
HeLa cell p34, homolog of the yeast cdc2+/CDC28 protein kinase, has been investigated. p34 was phosphorylated at two or more sites and existed in a complex with p13, the previously identified homolog of the suc1+ gene product of S. pombe. A fraction of the most highly phosphorylated form of p34 was also associated with p62, a newly identified protein that(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibits cell proliferation by inducing a G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Normal progression through G1 is promoted by the activity of the cyclin-dependent protein kinases CDK4 and CDK6 (ref. 2), which are inhibited by the protein p16INK4. We have isolated a new member of the p16INK4 family, p15INK4B. p15 expression is(More)
The nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) transcription factor is responsive to specific cytokines and stress and is often activated in association with cell damage and growth arrest in eukaryotes. NF-kappaB is a heterodimeric protein, typically composed of 50- and 65-kilodalton subunits of the Rel family, of which RelA(p65) stimulates transcription of diverse(More)