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Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced(More)
In a diverse group of organisms that includes Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, planaria, hydra, trypanosomes, fungi and plants, the introduction of double-stranded RNAs inhibits gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. These responses, called RNA interference or post-transcriptional gene silencing, may provide anti-viral defence, modulate(More)
The division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates promotes orderly progression through the cell cycle. The complexes formed by CDK4 and the D-type cyclins(More)
In Xenopus, a cytoplasmic agent known as MPF induces entry into mitosis. In fission yeast, genetic studies have shown that the cdc2 kinase regulates mitotic initiation. The 13 kd product of the suc1 gene interacts with the cdc2 kinase in yeast cells. We show that the yeast suc1 gene product (p13) is a potent inhibitor of MPF in cell-free extracts from(More)
Oncogene-induced senescence is a cellular response that may be crucial for protection against cancer development, but its investigation has so far been restricted to cultured cells that have been manipulated to overexpress an oncogene. Here we analyse tumours initiated by an endogenous oncogene, ras, and show that senescent cells exist in premalignant(More)
The cell cycle inhibitor p16INK4a is inactivated in many human tumors and in families with hereditary melanoma and pancreatic cancer. Tumor-associated alterations in the INK4a locus may also affect the overlapping gene encoding p19ARF and the adjacent gene encoding p15I1NK4b, both negative regulators of cell proliferation. We report the phenotype of mice(More)
Skeletal muscle differentiation entails the coordination of muscle-specific gene expression and terminal withdrawal from the cell cycle. This cell cycle arrest in the G0 phase requires the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). The function of Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which are controlled by Cdk inhibitors.(More)
Human cyclin D1 has been associated with a wide variety of proliferative diseases but its biochemical role is unknown. In diploid fibroblasts we find that cyclin D1 is complexed with many other cellular proteins. Among them are protein kinase catalytic subunits CDK2, CDK4 (previously called PSK-J3), and CDK5 (also called PSSALRE). In addition, polypeptides(More)
Deregulation of cell proliferation is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation. Alteration in growth control pathways must translate into changes in the cell-cycle regulatory machinery, but the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking(More)
The p53 tumour-suppressor protein controls the expression of a gene encoding the p21 cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) regulator. Levels of p21 protein are increased in senescent cells and p21 overexpression blocks the growth of tumour cells. In normal human cells, but not in many tumour cells, p21 exists in a quaternary complex with a cyclin, a CDK,(More)