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Oncogenic ras can transform most immortal rodent cells to a tumorigenic state. However, transformation of primary cells by ras requires either a cooperating oncogene or the inactivation of tumor suppressors such as p53 or p16. Here we show that expression of oncogenic ras in primary human or rodent cells results in a permanent G1 arrest. The arrest induced(More)
In a diverse group of organisms that includes Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, planaria, hydra, trypanosomes, fungi and plants, the introduction of double-stranded RNAs inhibits gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. These responses, called RNA interference or post-transcriptional gene silencing, may provide anti-viral defence, modulate(More)
The division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates promotes orderly progression through the cell cycle. The complexes formed by CDK4 and the D-type cyclins(More)
Oncogene-induced senescence is a cellular response that may be crucial for protection against cancer development, but its investigation has so far been restricted to cultured cells that have been manipulated to overexpress an oncogene. Here we analyse tumours initiated by an endogenous oncogene, ras, and show that senescent cells exist in premalignant(More)
Deregulation of cell proliferation is a hallmark of neoplastic transformation. Alteration in growth control pathways must translate into changes in the cell-cycle regulatory machinery, but the mechanism by which this occurs is largely unknown. Compared with normal human fibroblasts, cells transformed with a variety of viral oncoproteins show striking(More)
The fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, has been used extensively for genetic studies but until now it has not been utilized as a host organism for DNA cloning. Here we describe a method for high-frequency transformation fo a leu 1(-) strain of this yeast with hybrid plasmids containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae LEu 2(+) gene, a bacterial plasmid(More)
The p53 tumour-suppressor protein controls the expression of a gene encoding the p21 cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK) regulator. Levels of p21 protein are increased in senescent cells and p21 overexpression blocks the growth of tumour cells. In normal human cells, but not in many tumour cells, p21 exists in a quaternary complex with a cyclin, a CDK,(More)
wee1 acts antagonistically to cdc25 in the tyrosine dephosphorylation and activation of cdc2, yet biochemical evidence suggests that wee1 is not required for tyrosine phosphorylation and its role is obscure. We show here that a related 66 kd kinase, called mik1, acts redundantly with wee1 in the negative regulation of cdc2 in S. pombe. A null allele of mik1(More)
The dependence of cell-cycle progression on the integrity of the genome has been described as checkpoint control. A number of mutants of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, selected for their sensitivity to DNA damage caused by radiation (rad mutants) or to the DNA synthesis inhibitor hydroxyurea (hus mutants) have been classified as checkpoint(More)
Skeletal muscle differentiation entails the coordination of muscle-specific gene expression and terminal withdrawal from the cell cycle. This cell cycle arrest in the G0 phase requires the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). The function of Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which are controlled by Cdk inhibitors.(More)