David Griffith Lalloo

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BACKGROUND Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global(More)
BACKGROUND Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the only single dose therapy for uncomplicated malaria, but there is widespread resistance. At the time of this study, artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and chlorproguanil-dapsone (CPD), both multi-dose regimes, were considered possible alternatives to SP in Malawi. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact(More)
Adherence to anti-malarial dosing schedules is essential to ensure effective treatment. Measuring adherence is challenging due to recall issues and the participants’ awareness of the desired behaviour influencing their actions or responses. This study used qualitative methods, which allow for rapport building, to explore issues around anti-malarial(More)
A typical protein antigen contains several epitopes that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), but in a characteristic antiviral immune response in vivo, CTL recognize only a small number of these potential epitopes, sometimes only one, this phenomenon is known as immunodominance. Antigenic variation within CTL epitopes has been demonstrated(More)
Most asymptomatic individuals infected with HIV-1 have a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the virus Gag proteins which can be demonstrated in vitro. Epitopes have been mapped in p17 Gag and p24 Gag restricted by HLA-B8 (p17-3 and p24-13) and -B27 (p24-14). Viruses isolated from patients who make CTL responses to these peptides vary within the(More)
BACKGROUND Most epidemiological and clinical reports on snake envenoming focus on a single country and describe rural communities as being at greatest risk. Reports linking snakebite vulnerability to socioeconomic status are usually limited to anecdotal statements. The few reports with a global perspective have identified the tropical regions of Asia and(More)
Electrophysiological studies were done on patients with systemic neurotoxicity following the bite of a Papuan taipan (Oxyuranus scutellatus canni). Evoked compound muscle action potentials decreased and increased in tandem with clinical deterioration and recovery. Nerve conduction velocities did not change in envenomed patients and were consistent with(More)
OBJECTIVE To understand reasons for suboptimal and delayed uptake of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by describing the patterns of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and outcomes of ART eligibility assessments in primary clinic attendees. METHODS All clinic attendances and episodes of HTC were recorded at two clinics in Blantyre. A cohort of newly diagnosed(More)
BACKGROUND Most cases of cryptococcal meningitis occur in patients with HIV infection: the course and outcome of disease in the apparently immunocompetent is much more poorly understood. We describe a cohort of HIV uninfected Vietnamese patients with cryptococcal meningitis in whom underlying disease is uncommon, and relate presenting features of patients(More)
BACKGROUND Households in malaria endemic countries experience considerable costs in accessing formal health facilities because of childhood malaria. The Ministry of Health in Malawi has defined certain villages as hard-to-reach on the basis of either their distance from health facilities or inaccessibility. Some of these villages have been assigned a(More)