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We studied the relationship between growth rate and genome-wide gene expression, cell cycle progression, and glucose metabolism in 36 steady-state continuous cultures limited by one of six different nutrients (glucose, ammonium, sulfate, phosphate, uracil, or leucine). The expression of more than one quarter of all yeast genes is linearly correlated with(More)
The experimental evolution of laboratory populations of microbes provides an opportunity to observe the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation in real time. Until very recently, however, such studies have been limited by our inability to systematically find mutations in evolved organisms. We overcome this limitation by using a variety of DNA microarray-based(More)
Most heritable traits, including many human diseases, are caused by multiple loci. Studies in both humans and model organisms, such as yeast, have failed to detect a large fraction of the loci that underlie such complex traits. A lack of statistical power to identify multiple loci with small effects is undoubtedly one of the primary reasons for this(More)
A central challenge of genomics is to detect, simply and inexpensively, all differences in sequence among the genomes of individual members of a species. We devised a system to detect all single-nucleotide differences between genomes with the use of data from a single hybridization to a whole-genome DNA microarray. This allowed us to detect a variety of(More)
The rapid accumulation of complete genomic sequences offers the opportunity to carry out an analysis of inter- and intra-individual genome variation within a species on a routine basis. Sequencing whole genomes requires resources that are currently beyond those of a single laboratory and therefore it is not a practical approach for resequencing hundreds of(More)
Maintaining balanced growth in a changing environment is a fundamental systems-level challenge for cellular physiology, particularly in microorganisms. While the complete set of regulatory and functional pathways supporting growth and cellular proliferation are not yet known, portions of them are well understood. In particular, cellular proliferation is(More)
The use of DNA microarrays to identify nucleotide variation is almost 20 years old. A variety of improvements in probe design and experimental conditions have brought this technology to the point that single-nucleotide differences can be efficiently detected in unmixed samples, although developing reliable methods for detection of mixed sequences (e.g.,(More)
Phenotypic diversity can arise rapidly through loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or by the acquisition of copy number variations (CNV) spanning whole chromosomes or shorter contiguous chromosome segments. In Candida albicans, a heterozygous diploid yeast pathogen with no known meiotic cycle, homozygosis and aneuploidy alter clinical characteristics, including(More)
To study adaptive evolution in defined environments, we performed evolution experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) in nitrogen-limited chemostat cultures. We used DNA microarrays to identify copy-number variation associated with adaptation and observed frequent amplifications and deletions at the GAP1 locus. GAP1 encodes the general amino acid(More)
We present a yeast chemical-genomics approach designed to identify genes that when mutated confer drug resistance, thereby providing insight about the modes of action of compounds. We developed a molecular barcoded yeast open reading frame (MoBY-ORF) library in which each gene, controlled by its native promoter and terminator, is cloned into a(More)