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We estimate an effective mutation rate at an average Y chromosome short-tandem repeat locus as 6.9x10-4 per 25 years, with a standard deviation across loci of 5.7x10-4, using data on microsatellite variation within Y chromosome haplogroups defined by unique-event polymorphisms in populations with documented short-term histories, as well as comparative data(More)
We studied the relationship between growth rate and genome-wide gene expression, cell cycle progression, and glucose metabolism in 36 steady-state continuous cultures limited by one of six different nutrients (glucose, ammonium, sulfate, phosphate, uracil, or leucine). The expression of more than one quarter of all yeast genes is linearly correlated with(More)
The experimental evolution of laboratory populations of microbes provides an opportunity to observe the evolutionary dynamics of adaptation in real time. Until very recently, however, such studies have been limited by our inability to systematically find mutations in evolved organisms. We overcome this limitation by using a variety of DNA microarray-based(More)
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, to which Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease belongs, are a common cause of disability in adulthood. Growing awareness that axonal loss, rather than demyelination per se, is responsible for the neurological deficit in demyelinating CMT disease has focused research on the mechanisms of early development, cell(More)
Most heritable traits, including many human diseases, are caused by multiple loci. Studies in both humans and model organisms, such as yeast, have failed to detect a large fraction of the loci that underlie such complex traits. A lack of statistical power to identify multiple loci with small effects is undoubtedly one of the primary reasons for this(More)
A central challenge of genomics is to detect, simply and inexpensively, all differences in sequence among the genomes of individual members of a species. We devised a system to detect all single-nucleotide differences between genomes with the use of data from a single hybridization to a whole-genome DNA microarray. This allowed us to detect a variety of(More)
BACKGROUND Data provided by the social sciences as well as genetic research suggest that the 8-10 million Roma (Gypsies) who live in Europe today are best described as a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations. The relationship between the traditional social structure observed by the Roma, where the Group is the primary unit, and the(More)
the early 1990s a large amount of effort has focused on determining the complete genomic DNA sequence of many diverse organisms. Remarkably, virtually all this sequencing has been done using a single method: chain termination sequencing using dideoxynucle-osides 1 , usually referred to as Sanger sequencing. From the determination of the first complete(More)
The identification of a growing number of novel Mendelian disorders and private mutations in the Roma (Gypsies) points to their unique genetic heritage. Linguistic evidence suggests that they are of diverse Indian origins. Their social structure within Europe resembles that of the jatis of India, where the endogamous group, often defined by profession, is(More)
The 8–10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of(More)