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The ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) mediates arousal, an essential component of human consciousness. Lesions of the ARAS cause coma, the most severe disorder of consciousness. Because of current methodological limitations, including of postmortem tissue analysis, the neuroanatomic connectivity of the human ARAS is poorly understood. We applied(More)
We describe the resource availability and diet of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) from a new study site in the Central African Republic and Republic of Congo based on 3 years of study. The results, based on 715 fecal samples and 617 days of feeding trails, were similar to those reported from three other sites, in spite of differences in(More)
We examined the influence of ecological (diet, swamp use, and rainfall) and social (intergroup interaction rate) factors on ranging behavior in one group of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) during a 16-month study. Relative to mountain gorillas, western gorillas live in habitats with reduced herb densities, more readily available fruit (from(More)
Since the establishment of the concept of declaring death by brain criteria, a large extent of variability in the determination of brain death has been reported. There are no standardized practical guidelines, and major differences exist in the requirements for the declaration of brain death throughout the USA and internationally. The American Academy of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Multimodal imaging is gaining an important role in acute stroke. The benefit of obtaining additional clinically relevant information must be weighed against the detriment of increased cost, delaying time to treatment, and adverse events such as contrast-induced nephropathy. Use of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)(More)
Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain, but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness-arousal and awareness-in the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Concerns have recently grown regarding the safety of iodinated contrast agents used for CTA and CTP imaging. We tested whether the incidence of AN, defined by a >or=25% increase in the post-contrast scan creatinine level, was higher among patients with ischemic stroke who underwent a functional contrast-enhanced CT protocol compared(More)
BACKGROUND Although intracranial hemorrhage and infarction have been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza infection treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), the clinical outcomes of these patients are not well described. METHODS The authors present two patients with H1N1 influenza infection and diffuse cerebrovascular injury in the(More)
Susceptibility-weighted and gradient-recalled echo T2* magnetic resonance imaging have enabled the detection of very small foci of blood within the brain, which have been termed "cerebral microbleeds." These petechial intraparenchymal hemorrhages have begun to emerge as diagnostically and prognostically useful markers in a variety of disease states. Severe(More)
Ischemia has been proposed as a cause of transient global amnesia (TGA), but proof has been lacking. The authors performed magnetic resonance imaging on a 77-year-old woman with classic TGA at 4 hours and at 6 days after the onset of symptoms. Her initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient imaging suggested an acute infarct(More)