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Genetic and embryological experiments have established the Caenorhabditis elegans adult hermaphrodite gonad as a paradigm for studying the control of germline development and the role of soma-germline interactions. We describe ultrastructural features relating to essential germline events and the soma-germline interactions upon which they depend, as(More)
Sexual reproduction depends upon meiosis for the generation of haploid gamete nuclei, which unite after fertilization to form the diploid zygote. The oocytes of most animal species arrest during meiotic prophase, and complete meiosis in response to intercellular signaling in a process called meiotic maturation. Oocyte meiotic maturation is defined by the(More)
BACKGROUND A conserved biological feature of sexual reproduction in animals is that oocytes arrest in meiotic prophase and resume meiosis in response to extraovarian signals. In C. elegans, sperm trigger meiotic resumption by means of the major sperm protein (MSP) signal. MSP promotes meiotic resumption by functioning as an ephrin-signaling antagonist and(More)
It is shown that the C. elegans Pax-6 locus encodes two protein isoforms. One contains a Paired DNA binding domain as well as a homeodomain; the other consists only of the carboxy-terminal portion of the locus encoding the homeodomain. These two isoforms are expressed in a variety of postembryonic cell lineages. In one set of lineages, nuclear localization(More)
The major sperm protein (MSP) is the central cytoskeletal element required for actin-independent motility of nematode spermatozoa. MSP has a dual role in Caenorhabditis elegans reproduction, functioning as a hormone for both oocyte meiotic maturation and ovarian muscle contraction. The identification of the signaling function of MSP raised the question, how(More)
Most prior studies of the effects of excessive alcohol intake on the adolescent brain examined alcohol-use-dependent samples with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. In the Cape Town region, we identified a sizeable cohort of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) without externalizing or other psychiatric disorders. We examined brain(More)
Defining the forces that sculpt genome organization is fundamental for understanding the origin, persistence, and diversification of species. The genomic sequences of the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and Caenorhabditis briggsae provide an excellent opportunity to explore the dynamics of chromosome evolution. Extensive chromosomal rearrangement has(More)
The restricted spatiotemporal translation of maternal mRNAs, which is crucial for correct cell fate specification in early C. elegans embryos, is regulated primarily through the 3'UTR. Although genetic screens have identified many maternally expressed cell fate-controlling RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), their in vivo targets and the mechanism(s) by which they(More)
In most animals, female meiotic spindles assemble in the absence of centrosomes; instead, microtubule nucleation by chromatin, motor activity, and microtubule dynamics drive the self-organization of a bipolar meiotic spindle. Meiotic spindle assembly commences when microtubules gain access to chromatin after nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) during meiotic(More)
VAPB (VAMP- associated protein B) is an ER protein that regulates multiple biological functions. Although aberrant expression of VAPB is associated with breast cancer, its function in tumor cells is poorly understood. In this report, we provide evidence that VAPB regulates breast tumor cell proliferation and AKT activation. VAPB protein expression is(More)