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Background: The accurate prediction of where faults are likely to occur in code can help direct test effort, reduce costs, and improve the quality of software. Objective: We investigate how the context of models, the independent variables used, and the modeling techniques applied influence the performance of fault prediction models. Method: We used a(More)
To assess the importance of B cell control of T cell differentiation, we analyzed the course of the T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-driven disease experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with an altered B cell compartment. We found that recovery was dependent on the presence of autoantigen-reactive B cells. B cells from recovered mice produced interleukin(More)
The immune system can remember, sometimes for a lifetime, the identity of a pathogen. Understanding how this is accomplished has fascinated immunologists and microbiologists for many years, but there is still considerable debate regarding the mechanisms by which long-term immunity is maintained. Some of the controversy stems from a failure to distinguish(More)
BACKGROUND – The accurate prediction of where faults are likely to occur in code is important since it can help direct test effort, reduce costs and improve the quality of software. As a consequence, many different fault prediction models have been developed and reported in the literature. However, there is no consensus on what constitutes effective fault(More)
We have developed fluo-4, a new fluorescent dye for quantifying cellular Ca2+ concentrations in the 100 nM to 1 microM range. Fluo-4 is similar in structure and spectral properties to the widely used fluorescent Ca(2+)-indicator dye, fluo-3, but it has certain advantages over fluo-3. Due to its greater absorption near 488 nm, fluo-4 offers substantially(More)
The prime number theorem, established by Hadamard and de la Vall&#233;e Poussin independently in 1896, asserts that the density of primes in the positive integers is asymptotic to 1/ln <i>x</i>. Whereas their proofs made serious use of the methods of complex analysis, elementary proofs were provided by Selberg and Erd&#246;s in 1948. We describe a formally(More)
In this study we have shown that activation of arthritogenic splenocytes with antigen and agonistic anti-CD40 gives raise to a B cell population that produce high levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and low levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma. Transfer of these B cells into DBA/1-TcR-beta-Tg mice, immunized with bovine collagen (CII) emulsified in complete Freund's(More)
The maintenance of immune tolerance to apoptotic cells (AC) within an inflammatory milieu is vital to prevent autoimmunity. To investigate this, we administered syngeneic AC i.v. into mice carrying a cohort of ovalbumin (OVA)-specific transgenic T cells (DO11.10) along with OVA peptide and complete Freund's adjuvant, observing a dramatic increase in(More)
Chronic helminth infections, such as schistosomes, are negatively associated with allergic disorders. Here, using B cell IL-10-deficient mice, Schistosoma mansoni-mediated protection against experimental ovalbumin-induced allergic airway inflammation (AAI) was shown to be specifically dependent on IL-10-producing B cells. To study the organs involved, we(More)
The normal intestinal epithelium provides a barrier relatively impermeable to luminal constituents. However, patients with inflammatory bowel disease experience enhanced intestinal permeability that correlates with the degree of injury. IL-10 gene-deficient mice were studied to determine whether increased intestinal permeability occurs as a primary defect(More)