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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We objectively evaluated patients with recent stroke to determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and whether SDB was associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes. METHODS Forty-seven patients with recent ischemic stroke (median, 13 days) were studied with computerized overnight oximetry for evidence of arterial(More)
In the present study we investigate neural network changes after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) through the use of resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) methods. Using blood oxygen level dependent functional MRI, we examined RSFC at 3 and 6 months following resolution of posttraumatic amnesia. The goal of this study was to examine(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We prospectively studied bladder function in stroke patients to determine the mechanisms responsible for poststroke urinary incontinence. METHODS Fifty-one patients with recent unilateral ischemic hemispheric stroke admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit were enrolled. The presence of urinary incontinence was correlated with infarct(More)
There is mounting literature that examines brain activation during tasks of working memory in individuals with neurological disorders such as traumatic brain injury. These studies represent a foundation for understanding the functional brain changes that occur after moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but the focus on topographical(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are noninvasive techniques recently used to investigate cortical motor physiology. However, these modalities measure different phenomena, and in studies of human motor control they have given inconsistent results. We have developed a reproducible technique which(More)
Previous studies of the BOLD response in the injured brain have revealed neural recruitment relative to controls during working memory tasks in several brain regions, most consistently the right prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortices. We previously proposed that the recruitment observed in this literature represents auxiliary support resources,(More)
We have proposed a model of motor lateralization, in which the left and right hemispheres are specialized for different aspects of motor control: the left hemisphere for predicting and accounting for limb dynamics and the right hemisphere for stabilizing limb position through impedance control mechanisms. Our previous studies, demonstrating different motor(More)
Our previous studies of interlimb asymmetries during reaching movements have given rise to the dynamic-dominance hypothesis of motor lateralization. This hypothesis proposes that dominant arm control has become optimized for efficient intersegmental coordination, which is often associated with straight and smooth hand-paths, while non-dominant arm control(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that intramuscular (IM) botulinum toxin type A (BTX) reduces excessive muscle tone in a dose-dependent manner in the elbow, wrist, and fingers of patients who experience spasticity after a stroke. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, 24-week trial. SETTING Six academic and 13 private US(More)
OBJECTIVE A technique is presented for generating and recording lingual and palatine nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs). METHODS Pairs of thin, stainless steel disk electrodes were mounted onto mandibular or maxillary acrylic splints, similar to orthodontic retainers. Mandibular splint electrodes were oriented to contact the under surface of the(More)