David Goldberg

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Many statistical methods rely on numerical optimization to estimate a model’s parameters. Unfortunately, conventional algorithms sometimes fail. Even when they do converge, there is no assurance that they have found the global, rather than a local, optimum. We test a new optimization algorithm, simulated annealing, on four econometric problems and compare(More)
To aid general practitioners and other non-psychiatrists in the better recognition of mental illness short scales measuring anxiety and depression were derived by latent trait analysis from a standardised psychiatric research interview. Designed to be used by non-psychiatrists, they provide dimensional measures of the severity of each disorder. The full set(More)
This paper describes the referral pathways taken by 1554 patients newly referred to the mental health services in 11 countries, and documents factors associated with delays in referral. The pathways in centres relatively well provided with psychiatric staff were dominated by general practitioners and to a lesser extent hospital doctors: the relatively less(More)
Worldwide, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause, respectively, 600,000 and 350,000 deaths each year. Viral hepatitis is the leading cause of cirrhosis and liver cancer, which in turn ranks as the third cause of cancer death worldwide. Within the WHO European region, approximately 14 million people are chronically infected with(More)
UNLABELLED Injecting drug use is the main risk of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission in most developed countries. HCV antiviral treatment (peginterferon-α + ribavirin) has been shown to be cost-effective for patients with no reinfection risk. We examined the cost-effectiveness of providing antiviral treatment for injecting drug users (IDUs) as compared(More)
This article describes a large longitudinal multicenter collaborative study that investigated the form, frequency, course, and outcome of psychological problems that were seen in primary health care settings in 15 different sites around the world. The research employed a two-stage sampling design in which the 12-item General Health Questionnaire was(More)
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus antiviral treatment is effective for individual patients but few active injecting drug users are treated. We considered the utility of antiviral treatment for primary prevention of hepatitis C. METHODS A hepatitis C transmission model among injecting drug users was developed, incorporating treatment (62.5% average(More)
Quantitative estimates of the current and future burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) disease are required to plan a public health response to the HCV epidemic with regard to both prevention and treatment. A forward projection model was used to estimate the numbers of both current and former injecting drug users (IDUs) who acquired HCV and progressed to(More)
As the cohort of survivors with the single-ventricle type of congenital heart disease grows, it becomes increasingly evident that the state of chronically elevated venous pressure and decreased cardiac output inherent in the Fontan circulation provides the substrate for a progressive decline in functional status. One organ at great risk is the liver. Wedged(More)