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cultures of mammalian cells as well as bacteria expressing other ABC transporters—have led most researchers to believe that P-gp operates by directly binding and transporting multiple types of substrate molecules out of cells (6) (see the figure, panel A). Nevertheless, controversy remains. Alternative models have been proposed in which P-gp alters a single(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Because patients with diabetes mellitus may visit their primary care physician regularly but not their ophthalmologist, a retinal risk assessment in the primary care setting could improve the screening rate for diabetic retinopathy. An imaging system for use in the primary care setting to identify diabetic retinopathy requiring(More)
Hepatic function can be characterized by the activity/time curves obtained by imaging the aorta, spleen, and liver. Nonparametric deconvolution of the activity/time curves is clinically useful as a diagnostic tool in determining organ transit times and flow fractions. The use of this technique is limited, however, because of numerical and noise problems in(More)
Knowing which method parameters may be mutated during a method's executionis useful for many software engineering tasks. We present an approach todiscovering parameter reference immutability, in which several lightweight, scalable analyses are combined in stages, with each stage refining the overall result. The resulting analysis is scalable and combines(More)
Residue curves and pinch point curves are used to determine the operation leaves and hence the feasible region for distillation columns operating at a specific distillate and bottoms composition for all possible constant reflux and reboil ratios. In this paper we will experimentally show that we can expand the operating leaves of the rectifying section(More)
Automated unit tests are essential for the construction of reliable software, but writing them can be tedious. Several tools exist which attempt to automatically generate small tests from large system tests, but none of them can generate " transparent " tests which look and run like handwritten unit tests. I propose to build a system, amock, which generates(More)