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Many rhythmic motor behaviours, including swimming, walking, scratching, swallowing, micturition and sexual climax, are episodic: even in the absence of sensory inputs they exhibit a gradual run-down in frequency before spontaneously terminating. We have investigated whether the purinergic transmitters, ATP and adenosine, control run- down of swimming in(More)
A retrospective analysis was conducted of 9 children with focal cortical dysplasia and localization-related epilepsy who underwent epilepsy surgery. Focal cortical dysplasia includes malformed lesions with extensive abnormalities of neuronal morphology, architecture, and lamination. The patients were examined by EEG and video EEG telemetry, CT, MRI, and(More)
This ongoing study examines abnormalities of cerebral perfusion in a consecutive series of children with infantile spasms and correlates cerebral blood flow (CBF) abnormalities with electroencephalographic (EEG), neuroimaging, and pathologic findings. A consecutive series of children with infantile spasms, diagnosed by standard clinical and EEG criteria,(More)
Several neuroimaging techniques that supplement electrophysiologic methods of evaluating pediatric patients with localization-related epilepsies before surgery assess both structural and functional abnormalities. For example, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) has been used to(More)
In patients with structural abnormalities of the brain with poor seizure control by medication, epilepsy surgery becomes a very important tool for seizure control. Numerous radiological imaging studies are being used for studying the abnormality in order to aid in the planning of surgery. Included in the radiological imaging modalities are CT, MR, and Xenon(More)
Radionuclide bone scanning is an extremely sensitive, safe and widely applicable investigative aid. In most circumstances it cannot be employed to the exclusion of plain radiography as the two procedures--one dynamic and the other static--complement each other. In children, bone imaging demonstrates physiologic characteristics of bone growth and early(More)
Twenty children with partial epilepsy who had surgery between the ages of 4 1/2 months and 18 years were studied preoperatively with electroencephalography (EEG), computed tomography (CT), and technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime 99mTc-HmPAO single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT; 20 interictal, 4 postictal). Fourteen had magnetic(More)
Central nervous system involvement is a common but rarely reviewed feature of pediatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 91 patients with pediatric SLE and using a standardized data abstraction form documented 40 patients with central nervous system (CNS-SLE) involvement. The mean age of onset of SLE was 13.3(More)
Pixon noise reduction was applied to 18 planar images, six each from 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), 67Ga citrate (67Ga), and (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) studies. Pixon processing increased patient signal-to-noise ratio, 6.8-11.8 fold. Three specialists preferred processed images 44 of 54 times with good agreement (87%). Most(More)