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This article investigates the complex facts of Malay wh-questions, and suggests a theory of how Malay wh-questions fit into the typology of wh-questions permitted by a Minimalist conception of Universal Grammar. The paper examines the principles that account for overt wh-movement, wh-in-situ and partial wh-movement in Malay. We argue that the apparent(More)
Exosomes represent a discrete population of vesicles that are secreted from various cell types to the extracellular media. Their protein and lipid composition are a consequence of sorting events at the level of the multivesicular body, a central organelle which integrates endocytic and secretory pathways. Characterization of exosomes from different(More)
Formation of the 30S initiation complex (30S IC) is an important checkpoint in regulation of gene expression. The selection of mRNA, correct start codon, and the initiator fMet-tRNA(fMet) requires the presence of three initiation factors (IF1, IF2, IF3) of which IF3 and IF1 control the fidelity of the process, while IF2 recruits fMet-tRNA(fMet). Here we(More)
Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a eukaryotic surveillance pathway that degrades aberrant mRNAs containing premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD is triggered upon the assembly of the UPF surveillance complex near a PTC. In humans, UPF assembly is prompted by the exon junction complex (EJC). We investigated the molecular architecture of the human UPF(More)
Do the languages that we speak affect how we experience the world? This question was taken up in a linguistic survey and two non-linguistic psychophysical experiments conducted in native speakers of English, Indonesian, Greek, and Spanish. All four of these languages use spatial metaphors to talk about time, but the particular metaphoric mappings between(More)
We present a study of neural network architectures able to internally simulate perceptions and actions. All these architectures employ the novel Associative Self-Organizing Map (A-SOM) as a perceptual neural network. The A-SOM develops a representation of its input space, but in addition also learns to associate its activity with an arbitrary number of(More)
Autophagy, an important catabolic pathway involved in a broad spectrum of human diseases, implies the formation of double-membrane-bound structures called autophagosomes (AP), which engulf material to be degraded in lytic compartments. How APs form, especially how the membrane expands and eventually closes upon itself, is an area of intense research.(More)
During protein synthesis, tRNAs and mRNA move through the ribosome between aminoacyl (A), peptidyl (P), and exit (E) sites of the ribosome in a process called translocation. Translocation is accompanied by the displacement of the tRNAs on the large ribosomal subunit toward the hybrid A/P and P/E states and by a rotational movement (ratchet) of the ribosomal(More)
RuvBL1 and RuvBL2, also known as Pontin and Reptin, are AAA+ proteins essential in small nucleolar ribonucloprotein biogenesis, chromatin remodelling, nonsense-mediated messenger RNA decay and telomerase assembly, among other functions. They are homologous to prokaryotic RuvB, forming single- and double-hexameric rings; however, a DNA binding domain II(More)