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Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiological agent of paratuberculosis, a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects all ruminants worldwide. Some researchers have indicated a(More)
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) has attracted the interest of researchers because of similarities between paratuberculosis and Crohn's disease (CD). The aim of(More)
The multidrug efflux system in bacteria can reduce antibiotic concentration inside the cell, leading to failure in the treatment of bacterial diseases. This study evaluated the influence of two(More)
Infection of mammary gland cells with bacterial pathogens begins with adhesion, invasion, and persistence within the cells or systemic distribution. Some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are known(More)