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Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) (encoded by the Kiss1 and Tac2 genes, respectively) are indispensable for reproduction. In the female of many species, Kiss1 neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) coexpress dynorphin A and NKB. Such cells have been termed Kiss1/NKB/Dynorphin (KNDy) neurons, which are thought to mediate the negative feedback(More)
Human genetic studies have revealed that neurokinin B (NKB) and its receptor, neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R), are essential elements for normal reproduction; however, the precise role of NKB-NK3R signaling in the initiation of puberty remains unknown. We investigated here the regulation of Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNAs (encoding NKB and NK3R, respectively) in female(More)
Kisspeptins, encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and their canonical receptor, GPR54 (also termed Kiss1R), are unanimously recognised as essential regulators of puberty onset and gonadotrophin secretion. These key reproductive functions stem from the capacity of kisspeptins to stimulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus, where(More)
RF-amide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3), the mammalian ortholog of the avian gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone (GnIH), operates via the NPFF1 receptor (NPFF1R) to repress the reproductive axis, therefore acting as counterpart of the excitatory RF-amide peptide, kisspeptin (ligand of Gpr54). In addition, RFRP-3 modulates feeding and might contribute to the(More)
Puberty, as the end-point of a complex series of maturational events affecting the components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, is gated by the state of body energy reserves and sensitive to different metabolic cues; conditions of severe metabolic stress and energy unbalance (from anorexia to morbid obesity) being commonly linked to(More)
Kisspeptins (Kp), products of the Kiss1 gene that act via Gpr54 to potently stimulate GnRH secretion, operate as mediators of other regulatory signals of the gonadotropic axis. Mouse models of Gpr54 and/or Kiss1 inactivation have been used to address the contribution of Kp in the central control of gonadotropin secretion; yet, phenotypic and hormonal(More)
Attainment of reproductive capacity at puberty relies on a complex series of maturational events that include sexual differentiation of the brain; a hormonally driven phenomenon that takes place at early stages of development (critical period). Alterations of sex steroid milieu during such critical period disrupt pubertal maturation and gonadotropic(More)
The hypothalamic peptide, nesfatin-1, derived from the precursor NEFA/nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2), was recently identified as anorexigenic signal, acting in a leptin-independent manner. Yet its participation in the regulation of other biological functions gated by body energy status remains unexplored. We show herein that NUCB2/nesfatin-1 is involved in the(More)
Ovulation is triggered by the preovulatory surge of gonadotropins that, in rodents, is defined by the concomitant rise in circulating LH and FSH at the afternoon of proestrus (primary surge), followed by persistently elevated FSH levels at early estrus (secondary surge). In recent years, kisspeptins, products of the KiSS-1 gene that act via G(More)