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We investigated ascospore discharge in the perithecial fungus, Gibberella zeae. In a wind tunnel study that simulated constant rain and varying day and night lengths, the rate of ascospore release was approximately 8-30% greater under light than in complete darkness. Under constant light, ascospore discharge occurred at maximal rates at relative humidity(More)
Asexual sporulation (conidiation) is coordinately regulated in the grape powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe necator but nothing is known about its genetic regulation. We hypothesized that genes required for conidiation in other fungi would be upregulated at conidiophore initiation or full conidiation (relative to preconidiation vegetative growth and(More)
ABSTRACT The period of fruit susceptibility to Guignardia bidwellii (anamorph Phyllosticta ampelicida), the causal agent of grape black rot, was determined in the field. Intact fruit were inoculated weekly from bloom until 8 weeks later with a suspension containing 2 x 10(5) conidia per ml. Disease progress was monitored approximately every 2 days until 3(More)
ABSTRACT Several aspects of grapevine downy mildew epidemiology that are fundamental to model predictions were investigated. Simple rainfall-, temperature-, and phenology-based thresholds (rain > 2.5 mm; temperature > 11 degrees C; and phenology > Eichorn and Lorenz [E&L] growth stage 12) were evaluated to forecast primary (oosporic) infection by Plasmopara(More)
UNLABELLED Few plant pathogens have had a more profound effect on the evolution of disease management than Erysiphe necator, which causes grapevine powdery mildew. When the pathogen first spread from North America to England in 1845, and onwards to France in 1847, 'germ theory' was neither understood among the general populace nor even generally accepted(More)
ABSTRACT Berries of Vitis vinifera are reported to be susceptible to infection by Uncinula necator until soluble solids levels (brix) reach 8%, and established colonies are reported to sporulate until brix reach 15%. However, our analysis of disease progress on fruit of selected V. vinifera cultivars indicated that severity became asymptotic several weeks(More)
ABSTRACT A fundamental principle of integrated pest management is that actions taken to manage disease should be commensurate with the risk of infection and loss. One of the less-studied factors that determines this risk is ontogenic, or age-related resistance of the host. Ontogenic resistance may operate at the whole plant level or in specific organs or(More)
ABSTRACT Clusters of Vitis vinifera and V. labrusca are reported to become resistant to Plasmopara viticola at stages of development ranging from 1 to 6 weeks postbloom. It has been suggested that resistance is associated with loss of the infection court as stomata are converted to lenticels, but the time of onset, cultivar variation, and seasonal variation(More)
ABSTRACT Grape berries become resistant to powdery mildew early in development and are nearly immune to infection within 4 weeks after bloom. In this study, ontogenic resistance did not reduce attachment, germination, or appressorium formation of Uncinula necator on 3- to 4-week-old berries of Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay' or 3-week-old berries of V.(More)
ABSTRACT Grape berries are highly susceptible to powdery mildew 1 week after bloom but acquire ontogenic resistance 2 to 3 weeks later. We recently demonstrated that germinating conidia of the grape powdery mildew pathogen (Uncinula necator) cease development before penetration of the cuticle on older resistant berries. The mechanism that halts U. necator(More)