David G. Steel

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BACKGROUND There is little empirical evidence regarding the generalisability of relative risk estimates from studies which have relatively low response rates or are of limited representativeness. The aim of this study was to investigate variation in exposure-outcome relationships in studies of the same population with different response rates and designs by(More)
"The authors show how data from the 2% Sample of Anonymised Records (SAR) can be combined with data from the Small Area Statistics (SAS) database to investigate the causes of the ecological fallacy in an Enumeration District (ED) level analysis. A range of census variables are examined in three ¿SAR districts'...in England. Results of comparable analyses(More)
BACKGROUND In Australia telephone surveys have been the method of choice for ongoing jurisdictional population health surveys. Although it was estimated in 2011 that nearly 20% of the Australian population were mobile-only phone users, the inclusion of mobile phone numbers into these existing landline population health surveys has not occurred. This paper(More)
The social network literature on network dependences has largely ignored other sources of dependence, such as the school that a student attends, or the area in which an individual lives. The multilevel modelling literature on school and area dependences has, in turn, largely ignored social networks. To bridge this divide, a multiple-membership(More)
Since 1997, the NSW Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) had selected the sample using random digit dialing of landline telephone numbers. When the survey began coverage of the population by landline phone frames was high (96%). As landline coverage in Australia has declined and continues to do so, in 2012, a sample of mobile telephone numbers was added to the(More)
BACKGROUND In 2012 mobile phone numbers were included into the ongoing New South Wales Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) using an overlapping dual-frame design. Previously in the NSWPHS the sample was selected using random digit dialing (RDD) of landline phone numbers. The survey was undertaken using computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI). The(More)
This paper considers the problem of estimating fixed effects, random effects and variance components for the multi-variate random effects model with complete and incomplete data. It also considers making inference about the fixed and random effects, a problem which requires careful consideration of the choice of degrees of freedom to use in confidence(More)
Two-stage sampling usually leads to higher variances for estimators of means and regression coefficients, because of intra-cluster homogeneity. One way of allowing for clustering in fitting a linear regression model is to use a linear mixed model with two levels. If the estimated intra-cluster correlation is close to zero, it may be acceptable to ignore(More)