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The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an(More)
Native Americans derive from a small number of Asian founders who likely arrived to the Americas via Beringia. However, additional details about the initial colonization of the Americas remain unclear. To investigate the pioneering phase in the Americas we analyzed a total of 623 complete mtDNAs from the Americas and Asia, including 20 new complete mtDNAs(More)
It is well accepted that the Americas were the last continents reached by modern humans, most likely through Beringia. However, the precise time and mode of the colonization of the New World remain hotly disputed issues. Native American populations exhibit almost exclusively five mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups (A-D and X). Haplogroups A-D are also(More)
For several reasons, mtDNA has been regarded as particularly useful for studying prehistory. The human mitochondrion is an extra nuclear or-ganelle having DNA that exists as a circular molecule 16,569 base pairs in length, in which all nucleotide positions and coding loci are known. 3 Because this DNA is uniquely maternally inherited and, unlike nuclear(More)
The three-wave migration hypothesis of Greenberg et al. has permeated the genetic literature on the peopling of the Americas. Greenberg et al. proposed that Na-Dene, Aleut-Eskimo and Amerind are language phyla which represent separate migrations from Asia to the Americas. We show that a unique allele at autosomal microsatellite locus D9S1120 is present in(More)
AIM To develop a reagent kit that enables multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 18 short tandem repeats (STR) and the canine sex-determining Zinc Finger marker. METHODS Validation studies to determine the robustness and reliability in forensic DNA typing of this multiplex assay included sensitivity testing, reproducibility studies,(More)
No geographic differences in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) distribution among United States (US) domestic dog populations have been detected to date. To test the hypothesis that regional differences exist, a 608 bp sequence of the canid mtDNA hypervariable region 1 (HV1) from 220 mixed breed animals from the Western, Northeastern, Midwestern, and Southern US(More)
Recently, the observation of a high-frequency private allele, the 9-repeat allele at microsatellite D9S1120, in all sampled Native American and Western Beringian populations has been interpreted as evidence that all modern Native Americans descend primarily from a single founding population. However, this inference assumed that all copies of the 9-repeat(More)
We developed a novel method for identifying SNPs widely distributed throughout the coding and non-coding regions of a genome. The method uses large-scale parallel pyrosequencing technology in combination with bioinformatics tools. We used this method to generate approximately 23,000 candidate SNPs throughout the Macaca mulatta genome. We estimate that over(More)
Among social vertebrates, immigrants may incur a substantial fitness cost when they attempt to join a new group. Dispersers could reduce that cost, or increase their probability of mating via coalition formation, by immigrating into groups containing first-or second-degree relatives. We here examine whether dispersing males tend to move into groups(More)