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The mtDNA variation of 321 individuals from 17 Native American populations was examined by high-resolution restriction endonuclease analysis. All mtDNAs were amplified from a variety of sources by using PCR. The mtDNA of a subset of 38 of these individuals was also analyzed by D-loop sequencing. The resulting data were combined with previous mtDNA data from(More)
BACKGROUND Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase, the activity of which is inhibited by a variety of extracellular stimuli including insulin, growth factors, cell specification factors and cell adhesion. Consequently, inhibition of GSK-3 activity has been proposed to play a role in the regulation of numerous signalling(More)
The localization of substance P in brain regions that coordinate stress responses and receive convergent monoaminergic innervation suggested that substance P antagonists might have psychotherapeutic properties. Like clinically used antidepressant and anxiolytic drugs, substance P antagonists suppressed isolation-induced vocalizations in guinea pigs. In a(More)
The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is an abundant primate species that diverged from the ancestors of Homo sapiens about 25 million years ago. Because they are genetically and physiologically similar to humans, rhesus monkeys are the most widely used nonhuman primate in basic and applied biomedical research. We determined the genome sequence of an(More)
Cytokines are important in the regulation of haematopoiesis and immune responses, and can influence lymphocyte development. Here we have identified a class I cytokine receptor that is selectively expressed in lymphoid tissues and is capable of signal transduction. The full-length receptor was expressed in BaF3 cells, which created a functional assay for(More)
Native Americans derive from a small number of Asian founders who likely arrived to the Americas via Beringia. However, additional details about the initial colonization of the Americas remain unclear. To investigate the pioneering phase in the Americas we analyzed a total of 623 complete mtDNAs from the Americas and Asia, including 20 new complete mtDNAs(More)
Supplemental figure Ia Velocity vs. time for a packaging complex held under a constant load of ~5 pN. Velocity was determined by linear fitting in a 1 s sliding window. These data correspond to the black line shown in Fig. 1b. b, To determine the experimental noise, velocity vs. time was also obtained for a 15 kb long DNA molecule that was directly attached(More)
The present experiment explored whether delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC), the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana, shares with other drugs of abuse the ability to facilitate brain stimulation reward acutely, as measured by electrical intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS). Laboratory rats were implanted with stimulation electrodes in the medial(More)
There is good evidence that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and one of its products, quinolinic acid (QUIN), play a role in the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, in particular AIDS dementia complex. Although QUIN has been shown to be produced in neurotoxic concentrations by macrophages and microglia, the role of astrocytes in QUIN production is(More)
Despite intensive study, the neurobiological basis of epilepsy and persistent memory impairment following traumatic head injury remains unknown. Since abnormalities of the hippocampus are known to be associated with temporal lobe seizures and memory dysfunction, we investigated the effects of experimental traumatic brain injury on hippocampal structure and(More)