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COPII-coated vesicles, first identified in yeast and later characterized in mammalian cells, mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus within the secretory pathway. In these organisms, the mechanism of vesicle formation is well understood, but the process of soluble cargo sorting has yet to be resolved. In plants,(More)
Endocytosis is an essential process by which eukaryotic cells internalize exogenous material or regulate signaling at the cell surface [1]. Different endocytic pathways are well established in yeast and animals; prominent among them is clathrin-dependent endocytosis [2, 3]. In plants, endocytosis is poorly defined, and no molecular mechanism for cargo(More)
Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that(More)
Unconventional protein secretion (UPS) is a collective term for mechanisms by which cytosolic proteins that lack a signal peptide (“leaderless secretory proteins” (LSPs)) can gain access to the cell exterior. Numerous examples of UPS have been well documented in animal and yeast cells. In contrast, our understanding of the mechanism(s) and function of UPS(More)
We recently identified multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in the secretory and endocytic pathways to the lytic vacuole in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are post-Golgi, integral membrane proteins mediating endocytosis in animal cells. To define the endocytic pathway in(More)
Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle formation in time and space by activating ARF substrates on distinct donor membranes. Mammalian GBF1 (ref. 2) and yeast Gea1/2 (ref. 3) ARF-GEFs act at Golgi membranes, regulating COPI-coated vesicle formation. In contrast, their Arabidopsis thaliana homologue(More)
We have studied the possible mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export and retention by using natural residents of the plant ER. Under normal physiological conditions, calreticulin and the lumenal binding protein (BiP) are efficiently retained in the ER. When the ER retention signal is removed, truncated calreticulin is much more rapidly secreted than(More)
Despite the ubiquitous presence of the COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle budding machineries in all eukaryotes, the organization of the secretory pathway in plants differs significantly from that in yeast and mammalian cells. Mobile Golgi stacks and the lack of both transitional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a distinct ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment(More)
Developing pea cotyledons contain functionally different vacuoles, a protein storage vacuole and a lytic vacuole. Lumenal as well as membrane proteins of the protein storage vacuole exit the Golgi apparatus in dense vesicles rather than in clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Although the sorting receptor for vacuolar hydrolases BP-80 is present in CCVs, it is(More)
The past three years have witnessed the birth and propagation of a provocative idea in the plant sciences. Its proponents have suggested that higher plants have nerves, synapses, the equivalent of a brain localized somewhere in the roots, and an intelligence. The idea has attracted a number of adherents, to the extent that meetings have now been held in(More)