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Brefeldin A (BFA) causes a block in the secretory system of eukaryotic cells by inhibiting vesicle formation at the Golgi apparatus. Although this toxin has been used in many studies, its effects on plant cells are still shrouded in controversy. We have reinvestigated the early responses of plant cells to BFA with novel tools, namely, tobacco Bright Yellow(More)
Endocytosis is an essential process by which eukaryotic cells internalize exogenous material or regulate signaling at the cell surface [1]. Different endocytic pathways are well established in yeast and animals; prominent among them is clathrin-dependent endocytosis [2, 3]. In plants, endocytosis is poorly defined, and no molecular mechanism for cargo(More)
COPII-coated vesicles, first identified in yeast and later characterized in mammalian cells, mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus within the secretory pathway. In these organisms, the mechanism of vesicle formation is well understood, but the process of soluble cargo sorting has yet to be resolved. In plants,(More)
Storage parenchyma cells of developing legume cotyledons actively transport large amounts of storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles (PSV). These proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and pass through the Golgi apparatus. Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both(More)
Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that(More)
Guanine-nucleotide exchange factors on ADP-ribosylation factor GTPases (ARF-GEFs) regulate vesicle formation in time and space by activating ARF substrates on distinct donor membranes. Mammalian GBF1 (ref. 2) and yeast Gea1/2 (ref. 3) ARF-GEFs act at Golgi membranes, regulating COPI-coated vesicle formation. In contrast, their Arabidopsis thaliana homologue(More)
Secretion, endocytosis and transport to the lytic compartment are fundamental, highly coordinated features of the eukaryotic cell. These intracellular transport processes are facilitated by vesicles, many of which are small (100 nm or less in diameter) and 'coated' on their cytoplasmic surface. Research into the structure of the coat proteins and how they(More)
Plants constantly adjust their repertoire of plasma membrane proteins that mediates transduction of environmental and developmental signals as well as transport of ions, nutrients, and hormones. The importance of regulated secretory and endocytic trafficking is becoming increasingly clear; however, our knowledge of the compartments and molecular machinery(More)
Despite the ubiquitous presence of the COPI, COPII, and clathrin vesicle budding machineries in all eukaryotes, the organization of the secretory pathway in plants differs significantly from that in yeast and mammalian cells. Mobile Golgi stacks and the lack of both transitional endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and a distinct ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment(More)
We recently identified multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in the secretory and endocytic pathways to the lytic vacuole in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are post-Golgi, integral membrane proteins mediating endocytosis in animal cells. To define the endocytic pathway in(More)