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Endocytosis is an essential process by which eukaryotic cells internalize exogenous material or regulate signaling at the cell surface [1]. Different endocytic pathways are well established in yeast and animals; prominent among them is clathrin-dependent endocytosis [2, 3]. In plants, endocytosis is poorly defined, and no molecular mechanism for cargo(More)
Computer scientists have recently undermined our faith in the privacy-protecting power of anonymization, the name for techniques that protect the privacy of individuals in large databases by deleting information like names and social security numbers. These scientists have demonstrated that they can often " reidentify " or " deanonymize " individuals hidden(More)
Little is known about the dynamics and molecular components of plant prevacuolar compartments (PVCs). We have demonstrated recently that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins are concentrated on PVCs. In this study, we generated transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) BY-2 cell lines expressing two yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-fusion reporters that(More)
We recently identified multivesicular bodies (MVBs) as prevacuolar compartments (PVCs) in the secretory and endocytic pathways to the lytic vacuole in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells. Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are post-Golgi, integral membrane proteins mediating endocytosis in animal cells. To define the endocytic pathway in(More)
COPII-coated vesicles, first identified in yeast and later characterized in mammalian cells, mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus within the secretory pathway. In these organisms, the mechanism of vesicle formation is well understood, but the process of soluble cargo sorting has yet to be resolved. In plants,(More)
Brefeldin A (BFA) causes a block in the secretory system of eukaryotic cells by inhibiting vesicle formation at the Golgi apparatus. Although this toxin has been used in many studies, its effects on plant cells are still shrouded in controversy. We have reinvestigated the early responses of plant cells to BFA with novel tools, namely, tobacco Bright Yellow(More)
The plant trans-Golgi network/early endosome (TGN/EE) is a major hub for secretory and endocytic trafficking with complex molecular mechanisms controlling sorting and transport of cargo. Vacuolar transport from the TGN/EE to multivesicular bodies/late endosomes (MVBs/LEs) is assumed to occur via clathrin-coated vesicles, although direct proof for their(More)
Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a(More)
In receptor-mediated transport pathways in mammalian cells, clathrin-coated vesicle (CCV) mu-adaptins are the main binding partners for the tyrosine sorting/internalization motif (YXXØ). We have analyzed the function of the mu A-adaptin, one of the five mu-adaptins from Arabidopsis thaliana, by pull-down assays and plasmon resonance measurements using its(More)
Storage parenchyma cells of developing legume cotyledons actively transport large amounts of storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles (PSV). These proteins are synthesized on the endoplasmic reticulum and pass through the Golgi apparatus. Clathrin coated vesicles (CCV) and small electron dense vesicles found near the trans-Golgi network (TGN) have both(More)