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Using data from the direct sequencing of fragments of three mitochondrial genes (12S and 16S ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome-b; total length 1469 b.p.) we have reconstructed a gene phylogeny for all 19 living species of the gastropod genus Littorina. Members of the closely related genera Nodilittorina, Littoraria and Mainwaringia have been used as outgroups,(More)
A phylogenetic approach to the origin and maintenance of species diversity ideally requires the sampling of all species within a clade, confirmation that they are evolutionarily distinct entities, and knowledge of their geographical distributions. In the marine tropics such studies have mostly been of fish and reef-associated organisms, usually with high(More)
The geographical distribution of the limpet family Patellidae is essentially antitropical, with 18 species in southern Africa, 10 in the northeastern Atlantic, and only 11 species elsewhere (although 4 of these do occur in the tropics). One possible explanation for this distribution is the suggestion of a recent, perhaps Early Pliocene, migration from(More)
We provide evidence that citrate anions bridge between mineral platelets in bone and hypothesize that their presence acts to maintain separate platelets with disordered regions between them rather than gradual transformations into larger, more ordered blocks of mineral. To assess this hypothesis, we take as a model for a citrate bridging between layers of(More)
We have studied the atomic level structure of mineralized articular cartilage with heteronuclear solid-state NMR, our aims being to identify the inorganic species present at the surfaces of the mineral crystals which may interact with the surrounding organic matrix and to determine which components of the organic matrix are most closely involved with the(More)
A molecular phylogeny is presented for the subfamily Littorininae (including representatives of all subgeneric taxa and all members of a group of southern-temperate species formerly classified as 'Nodilittorina'), based on sequence data from two nuclear (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA) and two mitochondrial (12S rRNA, CO1) genes. The phylogeny shows considerable(More)
MRI has been used to measure hindlimb muscle volume in female and male transgenic mice overexpressing the Gly93Ala (G93A) mutant human superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a widely used model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), over the first 4 months of life. Significant decreases in the hindlimb muscle volume of the female G93A SOD1 mice were(More)
Most of the 29 living species of Potamididae show a close association with mangroves. The trees provide the snails with shelter, protection from predators, a solid substrate and sometimes food. Using sequences from three genes (nuclear 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA, mitochondrial COI) we derive a molecular phylogeny and recognize six living genera (Terebralia,(More)
Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP-3) is a recently identified member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that is expressed predominantly in skeletal muscle. However, its close relative UCP-1 is expressed exclusively in brown adipose tissue, a tissue whose main function is fat combustion and thermogenesis. Studies on the expression of UCP-3 in animals and(More)