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In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtubule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubulins also are modified by several types of posttranslational reactions including acetylation of(More)
How microtubule-associated motor proteins are regulated is not well understood. A potential mechanism for spatial regulation of motor proteins is provided by posttranslational modifications of tubulin subunits that form patterns on microtubules. Glutamylation is a conserved tubulin modification [1] that is enriched in axonemes. The enzymes responsible for(More)
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are assembled and maintained by the bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT). Studies in alga, nematode, and mouse have shown that the heavy chain (Dyh2) and the light intermediate chain (D2LIC) of the cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex are essential for retrograde intraflagellar transport. In these organisms, disruption of(More)
Epitopes recognized by three G1-specific and two G2-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to Hantaan virus were mapped by sequence analyses of the complete M genome segments of neutralization escape variant viruses. For each variant, we detected nucleotide sequence substitutions which resulted in a single amino acid change in either the G1 or G2(More)
Cilia in many organisms undergo a phenomenon called ciliary reversal during which the cilia reverse the beat direction, and the cell swims backwards. Ciliary reversal is typically caused by a depolarizing stimulus that ultimately leads to a rise in intraciliary Ca++ levels. It is this increase in intraciliary Ca++ that triggers ciliary reversal. However,(More)
The formation of Hantaan (HTN) virus nucleocapsid-like structures (NLS) or virus-like particles (VLP) from expressed gene products was investigated in two eukaryotic systems. Baculovirus expression of the HTN virus small segment (S), which encodes the viral nucleocapsid protein, resulted in assembly of NLS inside infected insect cells. The NLS and authentic(More)
In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtu-bule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of oL-and 13-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubu-lins also are modified by several types of posttransla-tional reactions including acetylation of(More)
A combinatorial, phage-display library of human Fab antibody fragments was generated from IgG heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes cloned from the lymphocytes of a vaccinia virus (VACV)-immune donor. To ascertain the complexity of the library, nucleotide sequences of the variable regions of the HC and LC genes were determined. Fourteen distinct HC(More)
The dynein ATPases are a family of motor enzymes that drive microtubule sliding in cilia and flagella and contribute to microtubule-based transport inside cells. The multi-dynein hypothesis makes two predictions: 1) Axonemes contain multiple dynein heavy chain (DHC) isoforms, each encoded by a different gene; 2) Each isoform performs a specific role in(More)
Two dyneins can be extracted from Tetrahymena ciliary axonemes. The 22S dynein contains three heavy chains (HC), sediments at 22S in a sucrose gradient, and makes up the outer arms. The 14S dynein contains two to six HCs, sediments at 14S, and is thought to contribute to formation of the inner arms. We have identified two large proteins that are extracted(More)