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In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtubule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of alpha- and beta-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubulins also are modified by several types of posttranslational reactions including acetylation of(More)
How microtubule-associated motor proteins are regulated is not well understood. A potential mechanism for spatial regulation of motor proteins is provided by posttranslational modifications of tubulin subunits that form patterns on microtubules. Glutamylation is a conserved tubulin modification [1] that is enriched in axonemes. The enzymes responsible for(More)
Cilia in many organisms undergo a phenomenon called ciliary reversal during which the cilia reverse the beat direction, and the cell swims backwards. Ciliary reversal is typically caused by a depolarizing stimulus that ultimately leads to a rise in intraciliary Ca++ levels. It is this increase in intraciliary Ca++ that triggers ciliary reversal. However,(More)
Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are assembled and maintained by the bidirectional intraflagellar transport (IFT). Studies in alga, nematode, and mouse have shown that the heavy chain (Dyh2) and the light intermediate chain (D2LIC) of the cytoplasmic dynein-2 complex are essential for retrograde intraflagellar transport. In these organisms, disruption of(More)
The workshop closed with a panel discussion on the subject Models for Sponsored Search: what are the right questions?. The transcript is as accurate as possible given the nature of the recording and is meant solely as a research aid for those doing research in the area of sponsored search. Thanks are in order to all who participated in the panel and to(More)
In Tetrahymena, at least 17 distinct microtu-bule structures are assembled from a single primary sequence type of oL-and 13-tubulin heterodimer, precluding distinctions among microtubular systems based on tubulin primary sequence isotypes. Tetrahymena tubu-lins also are modified by several types of posttransla-tional reactions including acetylation of(More)
In many organisms, depolarizing stimuli cause an increase in intraciliary Ca2+, which results in reversal of ciliary beat direction and backward swimming. The mechanism by which an increase in intraciliary Ca2+ causes ciliary reversal is not known. Here we show that Tetrahymena cells treated with okadaic acid or cantharidin to inhibit protein phosphatases(More)
The multi-dynein hypothesis [Asai, 1995: Cell Motil Cytoskeleton 32:129-132] states: (1) there are many different dynein HC isoforms; (2) each isoform is encoded by a different gene; (3) different isoforms have different functions. Many studies provide evidence in support of the first two statements [Piperno et al., 1990: J Cell Biol 110:379-389; Kagami and(More)
Dynein light chains are required for the assembly of axonemal dyneins into cilia and flagella. Most organisms express a single p28 dynein light chain and four to nine one-headed inner arm dynein heavy chains. In contrast, Tetrahymena encodes three p28 dynein light chain genes (p28A, p28B, and p28C) and 18 one-headed inner arm dynein heavy chains. In this(More)
Calcium-dependent ciliary reversals are seen in ciliated protozoans such as Tetrahymena in response to depolarizing stimuli, but the axonemal mechanisms responsible for this response are not well understood. The model is that the outer arm dyneins (OADs) control the beating frequency while the inner arm dyneins (IADs) regulate ciliary waveform. Since(More)