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Imaging studies of cerebral volumes often adjust for factors such as age that may confound between-subject comparisons. However the use of nuisance covariates in imaging studies is inconsistent, which can make interpreting results across studies difficult. Using magnetic resonance images of 78 healthy controls we assessed the effects of age, gender, head(More)
From an extensive serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study in multiple sclerosis (MS) we have identified 4 cases in which disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as detected by gadolinium-DTPA enhancement, preceded other MRI abnormalities and in 1 case clinical evidence of the new lesion. This supports the view that a defect in the blood-brain barrier,(More)
Simultaneous recording from multiple single neurones presents many technical difficulties. However, obtaining such data has many advantages, which make it highly worthwhile to overcome the technical problems. This report describes methods which we have developed to permit recordings in awake behaving monkeys using the 'Eckhorn' 16 electrode microdrive.(More)
BACKGROUND Oral fumarate (BG00012) might have dual anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Our aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of BG00012 in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. METHODS 257 patients, aged 18-55 years, with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to receive 120 mg once daily (n=64),(More)
We performed spin echo magnetic resonance imaging with and without application of an off-resonance saturation pulse in 43 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 10 age-matched controls, and 4 elderly asymptomatic patients with the radiological diagnosis of small-vessel disease. Magnetization transfer (MT) ratio images were obtained from these. All MS(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a magnetic resonance imaging technique, is used to infer major axonal projections in the macaque and human brain. This study investigates the feasibility of using known macaque anatomical connectivity as a "gold-standard" for the evaluation of DTI tractography methods. Connectivity information is determined from the DTI data(More)
OBJECTIVES Recovery to normal or near normal visual acuity is usual after acute demyelinating optic neuritis, despite the frequent persistence of conduction abnormalities as evidenced by the visual evoked potential (VEP). This raises the possibility that cortical adaptation to a persistently abnormal input contributes to the recovery process. The objective(More)
Cerebral atrophy calculated from serial MRI is a marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression, and a potential outcome measure for therapeutic trials. Reducing within-subject variability in cerebral atrophy rates by acquiring more than two serial scans could allow for shorter clinical trials requiring smaller patient numbers. Forty-six patients with AD(More)
This study assessed optic nerve mean area on serial MRI in a cohort of patients with a first episode of acute unilateral optic neuritis to assess the effects of a single acute inflammatory demyelinating lesion. Twenty-nine patients with a median delay from onset of visual symptoms of 13 days (range 7-24 days) were recruited. After a clinical examination and(More)
A definitive diagnosis of multiple sclerosis cannot be made at presentation on patients with a clinically isolated syndrome of the optic nerve, spinal cord or brainstem suggestive of demyelination, as dissemination in time is not established. To determine the long-term risk of abnormalities on brain MRI for the development of multiple sclerosis and(More)