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BACKGROUND Envenoming resulting from snakebites is an important public health problem in many tropical and subtropical countries. Few attempts have been made to quantify the burden, and recent estimates all suffer from the lack of an objective and reproducible methodology. In an attempt to provide an accurate, up-to-date estimate of the scale of the global(More)
A typical protein antigen contains several epitopes that can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), but in a characteristic antiviral immune response in vivo, CTL recognize only a small number of these potential epitopes, sometimes only one, this phenomenon is known as immunodominance. Antigenic variation within CTL epitopes has been demonstrated(More)
Snake bite is a common cause of hospital admission in Sri Lanka. Despite this, there have been no countrywide studies or national estimates of disease burden due to snake bites in Sri Lankan hospitals. We assessed the disease burden due to snake bite in our hospitals and estimated the frequency of admissions due to bites by different snake species. Sri(More)
IMPORTANCE Self-testing for HIV infection may contribute to early diagnosis of HIV, but without necessarily increasing antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether offering optional home initiation of HIV care after HIV self-testing might increase demand for ART initiation, compared with HIV self-testing accompanied by(More)
BACKGROUND Limited data exist on infectious diseases imported to various locations in Europe, particularly after travel within the continent. METHODS To investigate travel-related disease relevant to Europe that is potentially preventable through pre-travel intervention, we analyzed the EuroTravNet database of 5,965 ill travelers reported by 16 centers in(More)
BACKGROUND In patients with louse-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis infection), antimicrobial treatment is often followed by sudden fever, rigors, and persistent hypotension (Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions) that are associated with increases in plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6, and interleukin-8. We(More)
Most asymptomatic individuals infected with HIV-1 have a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to the virus Gag proteins which can be demonstrated in vitro. Epitopes have been mapped in p17 Gag and p24 Gag restricted by HLA-B8 (p17-3 and p24-13) and -B27 (p24-14). Viruses isolated from patients who make CTL responses to these peptides vary within the(More)
OBJECTIVE Despite the recognition of Cryptococcus neoformans as a major cause of meningitis in HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the relative importance of this potentially preventable infection as a cause of mortality and suffering in HIV-infected adults in this region. DESIGN A cohort study of 1372 HIV-1-infected adults,(More)
BACKGROUND In sub-Saharan Africa, bacterial meningitis is common and is associated with a high mortality. Adjuvant therapy with corticosteroids reduces mortality among adults in the developed world, but it has not been adequately tested in developing countries or in the context of advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS We conducted(More)
Thirty-two patients with enzyme-immunoassay-proven death adder (Acanthophis sp.) bites were studied in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Eighteen were envenomed; local signs were rare and none had incoagulable blood, but all except one had signs of neurotoxicity. Five (27.7%) envenomed patients required intubation and ventilation. One patient developed renal(More)