David G. Kuhel

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Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a crucial cytokine in the regulation of T helper 1 vs. T helper 2 immune responses. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine on the production of IL-12. In mouse macrophages, adenosine suppressed IL-12 production. Although the order of potency of adenosine receptor agonists(More)
Extracellular purines, including adenosine and ATP, are potent endogenous immunomodulatory molecules. Inosine, a degradation product of these purines, can reach high concentrations in the extracellular space under conditions associated with cellular metabolic stress such as inflammation or ischemia. In the present study, we investigated whether(More)
The mechanism by which human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor therapy adversely induces lipodystrophy and hyperlipidemia has not been defined. This study explored the mechanism associated with the adverse effects of the prototype protease inhibitor ritonavir in mice. Ritonavir treatment increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels(More)
Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is a 34-kDa glycoprotein that is important in lipoprotein metabolism both peripherally and centrally. Because it is primarily produced in the liver, apoE observed in the brain or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could have originated in the periphery; i.e., circulating apoE may cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and/or enter CSF and be(More)
Inflammatory cross talk between perivascular adipose tissue and the blood vessel wall has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We previously reported that human perivascular (PV) adipocytes exhibit a proinflammatory phenotype and less adipogenic differentiation than do subcutaneous (SQ) adipocytes. To gain a global view of the(More)
Proposed mechanisms by which alpha 2-adrenergic receptors (alpha 2AR) regulate intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) include stimulation and inhibition of cell surface calcium channels, stimulation of calcium release via receptor coupling to Gq with subsequent activation of phospholipase C and release of IP3, or stimulation of calcium release via coupling to Gi(More)
Immune cell activation releases ATP into the extracellular space. ATP-sensitive P2 purinergic receptors are expressed on immune cells and activation of these receptors alters immune cell function. Furthermore, ATP is metabolized by ectonucleotidases to adenosine, which has also been shown to alter cytokine production. In the present study, we investigated(More)
Polyamines are endogenous immunomodulatory molecules. Recent studies revealed that polyamines suppress the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the polyamines spermine, spermidine, and putrescine on the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40, IL-10, and interferon (IFN-gamma) in mouse(More)
The potential cytostatic function of apolipoprotein (apo) E in vivo was explored by measuring neointimal hyperplasia in response to vascular injury in apoE-deficient and apoE-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results showed a significant increase in medial thickness, medial area, and neointimal formation after vascular injury in both apoE knockout and(More)
Apolipoprotein (apo) E4 is a major genetic risk factor for a wide spectrum of inflammatory metabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer disease. This study compared diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation as well as functional properties of macrophages isolated from human APOE3 and APOE4 mice to identify the mechanism responsible(More)