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The eucaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the periodic synthesis and destruction of cyclins that associate with and activate cyclin-dependent kinases. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, such as p21 and p16, also play important roles in cell cycle control by coordinating internal and external signals and impeding proliferation at several key checkpoints.(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein is phosphorylated and activated by several DNA damage-inducible kinases, such as ATM, and is a key effector of the DNA damage response by promoting cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Deregulation of the Rb-E2F1 pathway also results in the activation of p53 and the promotion of apoptosis, and this contributes to the suppression(More)
Since the discovery almost fifteen years ago that E2F transcription factors are key targets of the retinoblastoma protein (RB), studies of the E2F family have uncovered critical roles in the control of transcription, cell cycle and apoptosis. E2F proteins are encoded by at least eight genes, E2F1 through E2F8. While specific roles for individual E2Fs in(More)
Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor gene contains a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) that results in either an arginine or proline at position 72 of the p53 protein. This polymorphism affects the apoptotic activity of p53 but the mechanistic basis and physiologic relevance of this phenotypic difference remain unclear. Here, we describe the development of(More)
Autophagy is a protective mechanism that renders cells viable in stressful conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that this cellular process is also a tumor suppressor pathway. Previous studies showed that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKI) induce autophagy. Whether retinoblastoma protein (RB), a key tumor suppressor and downstream target of CDKIs,(More)
Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is the primary environmental insult responsible for the development of most common skin cancers. To better understand the multiple molecular events that contribute to the development of UV-induced skin cancer, in a first study, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was used to compare the global gene expression profiles of(More)
In diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is often associated with elevated levels of glucagon in the blood. This suggests that glucagon is a contributing factor in the metabolic abnormalities of diabetes mellitus. A glucagon-receptor antagonist would provide direct evidence for glucagon's role in diabetes mellitus. On the basis of careful consideration of(More)
Three corn hybrids (Pioneer 36F30, Mycogen TMF2450, and Mycogen TMF2404) were compared for yield and quality traits, and lactation performance and apparent digestibility by Holstein cows. The three corn silages were harvested at a target of 33 to 35% dry matter. Before harvest, six corn plants were randomly selected for plant fractionation. Grain-to-stover(More)
Both p53 tumor suppressor and murine double minute 2 (MDM2) oncoprotein are crucial in carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that MDM2 promoter single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) SNP309 T > G, A2164G, and p53 codon 72 are associated with risk and age at onset of squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN). We genotyped these SNPs in a study of 1,083(More)